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Table 1.

Architectural properties of muscles and functional groups in the rat hindlimb

Muscle (N=6)Mass (mg)Muscle length (cm)Fiber length (cm)Pennation angle (deg.)PCSA (cm2)Lf/Lm
Psoas 1784.83±296.10 5.55±0.26 2.36±0.23 17.1±0.8 0.67±0.07 0.42±0.02 
Glut. superficialis 521.00±31.66 2.55±0.17 1.92±0.11 –1.1±0.7 0.26±0.01 0.56±0.03 
Glut. medius 1992.33±47.38 3.64±0.16 2.43±0.11 0.6±0.8 0.79±0.05 0.67±0.05 
Muscle X 377.00±17.21 4.31±0.12 3.50±0.08 1.0±1.0 0.10±0.01 0.81±0.01 
Rectus femoris 945.33±33.23 3.21±0.11 1.16±0.10 25.4±4.0 0.71±0.05 0.36±0.04 
Vastus lateralis*, 1288.83±41.22 3.42±0.08 1.96±0.12 10.0±3.3 0.62±0.05 0.57±0.04 
Vastus intermedius 170.67±15.53 2.64±0.16 1.14±0.08 6.9±1.2 0.14±0.01 0.44±0.04 
Vastus medialis 442.50±44.81 2.79±0.09 1.70±0.04 24.7±3.4 0.22±0.02 0.61±0.02 
Gracilis cranial head 173.00±27.68 3.04±0.15 2.57±0.13 0.0±0.0 0.06±0.01 0.84±0.01 
Gracilis caudal head 276.00±38.68 3.47±0.14 2.64±0.08 0.0±0.0 0.10±0.02 0.76±0.02 
Adductor longus 235.50±11.86 1.62±0.06 1.07±0.08 4.2±1.7 0.21±0.01 0.66±0.04 
Adductor brevis 66.83±3.26 1.57±0.09 1.16±0.07 0.0±0.0 0.06±0.00 0.75±0.02 
Adductor magnus 649.83±16.49 2.98±0.09 2.21±0.08 0.0±0.0 0.28±0.01 0.74±0.02 
Adductor tertius 685.17±18.37 2.47±0.07 1.98±0.04 0.6±0.6 0.33±0.01 0.80±0.02 
Biceps femoris 2670.83±95.48 5.10±0.08 3.40±0.06 3.6±3.5 0.74±0.03 0.67±0.02 
Semitendinosus 789.83±33.17 5.95±0.09 4.77±0.05 0.0±0.0 0.16±0.02 0.80±0.01 
Semimembranosus 1452.83±39.84 4.27±0.12 3.09±0.13 2.1±2.0 0.45±0.02 0.72±0.02 
Tibialis anterior* 662.17±17.70 2.91±0.04 1.64±0.07 12.8±1.2 0.38±0.02 0.57±0.03 
Extensor hallucis longus 19.50±0.67 1.74±0.09 1.18±0.07 5.7±1.6 0.02±0.00 0.68±0.02 
Extensor digitorum longus* 131.83±3.24 2.81±0.09 1.34±0.10 9.0±1.1 0.09±0.01 0.48±0.05 
Peroneus longus 177.50±7.01 2.76±0.04 0.89±0.08 20.0±3.1 0.19±0.02 0.32±0.03 
Peroneus brevis 124.67±4.45 2.92±0.11 0.82±0.02 12.6±2.8 0.14±0.01 0.28±0.01 
Gastrocnemius MH*, 849.17±24.18 3.61±0.06 1.61±0.13 14.0±3.9 0.49±0.04 0.45±0.04 
Gastrocnemius LH*, 1031.17±30.53 3.42±0.08 1.56±0.14 14.2±3.6 0.62±0.05 0.46±0.05 
Soleus*, 134.67±4.57 2.83±0.19 1.97±0.19 3.9±2.4 0.07±0.01 0.69±0.04 
Flexor hallucis longus 29.67±1.69 1.81±0.19 0.89±0.03 7.5±2.1 0.03±0.00 0.51±0.04 
Flexor digitorum longus 463.83±10.87 3.22±0.05 0.97±0.06 19.3±1.9 0.44±0.03 0.30±0.02 
Tibialis posterior 135.83±9.71 2.67±0.01 0.60±0.04 26.0±7.3 0.19±0.03 0.23±0.01 
Plantaris*, 397.50±16.87 4.08±0.07 1.37±0.07 16.4±3.2 0.26±0.01 0.34±0.02 
Hip flexors 1365.08±419.75 4.38±1.17 1.76±0.60 21.25±4.17 0.69±0.02 0.39±0.03 
Hip extensors 1300.64±369.73 4.30±0.48 3.19±0.40 1.02±0.67 0.41±0.10 0.74±0.03 
Hip abductors 1256.67±735.67 3.09±0.54 2.18±0.25 –0.28±0.83 0.52±0.26 0.72±0.04 
Hip adductors 402.30±118.84 2.42±0.37 1.28±0.39 0.94±0.81 0.20±0.05 0.75±0.03 
Knee flexors 890.81±261.32 4.14±0.31 2.72±0.37 5.69±2.33 0.33±0.08 0.65±0.06 
Knee extensors 711.83±250.48 3.01±0.18 1.49±0.20 16.77±4.83 0.42±0.14 0.50±0.06 
Plantarflexors 371.56±117.83 3.04±0.22 1.19±0.15 14.88±2.21 0.27±0.07 0.40±0.05 
Dorsiflexors 271.17±15.90 2.49±0.38 1.39±0.13 9.17±2.05 0.16±0.11 0.58±0.06 
Muscle (N=6)Mass (mg)Muscle length (cm)Fiber length (cm)Pennation angle (deg.)PCSA (cm2)Lf/Lm
Psoas 1784.83±296.10 5.55±0.26 2.36±0.23 17.1±0.8 0.67±0.07 0.42±0.02 
Glut. superficialis 521.00±31.66 2.55±0.17 1.92±0.11 –1.1±0.7 0.26±0.01 0.56±0.03 
Glut. medius 1992.33±47.38 3.64±0.16 2.43±0.11 0.6±0.8 0.79±0.05 0.67±0.05 
Muscle X 377.00±17.21 4.31±0.12 3.50±0.08 1.0±1.0 0.10±0.01 0.81±0.01 
Rectus femoris 945.33±33.23 3.21±0.11 1.16±0.10 25.4±4.0 0.71±0.05 0.36±0.04 
Vastus lateralis*, 1288.83±41.22 3.42±0.08 1.96±0.12 10.0±3.3 0.62±0.05 0.57±0.04 
Vastus intermedius 170.67±15.53 2.64±0.16 1.14±0.08 6.9±1.2 0.14±0.01 0.44±0.04 
Vastus medialis 442.50±44.81 2.79±0.09 1.70±0.04 24.7±3.4 0.22±0.02 0.61±0.02 
Gracilis cranial head 173.00±27.68 3.04±0.15 2.57±0.13 0.0±0.0 0.06±0.01 0.84±0.01 
Gracilis caudal head 276.00±38.68 3.47±0.14 2.64±0.08 0.0±0.0 0.10±0.02 0.76±0.02 
Adductor longus 235.50±11.86 1.62±0.06 1.07±0.08 4.2±1.7 0.21±0.01 0.66±0.04 
Adductor brevis 66.83±3.26 1.57±0.09 1.16±0.07 0.0±0.0 0.06±0.00 0.75±0.02 
Adductor magnus 649.83±16.49 2.98±0.09 2.21±0.08 0.0±0.0 0.28±0.01 0.74±0.02 
Adductor tertius 685.17±18.37 2.47±0.07 1.98±0.04 0.6±0.6 0.33±0.01 0.80±0.02 
Biceps femoris 2670.83±95.48 5.10±0.08 3.40±0.06 3.6±3.5 0.74±0.03 0.67±0.02 
Semitendinosus 789.83±33.17 5.95±0.09 4.77±0.05 0.0±0.0 0.16±0.02 0.80±0.01 
Semimembranosus 1452.83±39.84 4.27±0.12 3.09±0.13 2.1±2.0 0.45±0.02 0.72±0.02 
Tibialis anterior* 662.17±17.70 2.91±0.04 1.64±0.07 12.8±1.2 0.38±0.02 0.57±0.03 
Extensor hallucis longus 19.50±0.67 1.74±0.09 1.18±0.07 5.7±1.6 0.02±0.00 0.68±0.02 
Extensor digitorum longus* 131.83±3.24 2.81±0.09 1.34±0.10 9.0±1.1 0.09±0.01 0.48±0.05 
Peroneus longus 177.50±7.01 2.76±0.04 0.89±0.08 20.0±3.1 0.19±0.02 0.32±0.03 
Peroneus brevis 124.67±4.45 2.92±0.11 0.82±0.02 12.6±2.8 0.14±0.01 0.28±0.01 
Gastrocnemius MH*, 849.17±24.18 3.61±0.06 1.61±0.13 14.0±3.9 0.49±0.04 0.45±0.04 
Gastrocnemius LH*, 1031.17±30.53 3.42±0.08 1.56±0.14 14.2±3.6 0.62±0.05 0.46±0.05 
Soleus*, 134.67±4.57 2.83±0.19 1.97±0.19 3.9±2.4 0.07±0.01 0.69±0.04 
Flexor hallucis longus 29.67±1.69 1.81±0.19 0.89±0.03 7.5±2.1 0.03±0.00 0.51±0.04 
Flexor digitorum longus 463.83±10.87 3.22±0.05 0.97±0.06 19.3±1.9 0.44±0.03 0.30±0.02 
Tibialis posterior 135.83±9.71 2.67±0.01 0.60±0.04 26.0±7.3 0.19±0.03 0.23±0.01 
Plantaris*, 397.50±16.87 4.08±0.07 1.37±0.07 16.4±3.2 0.26±0.01 0.34±0.02 
Hip flexors 1365.08±419.75 4.38±1.17 1.76±0.60 21.25±4.17 0.69±0.02 0.39±0.03 
Hip extensors 1300.64±369.73 4.30±0.48 3.19±0.40 1.02±0.67 0.41±0.10 0.74±0.03 
Hip abductors 1256.67±735.67 3.09±0.54 2.18±0.25 –0.28±0.83 0.52±0.26 0.72±0.04 
Hip adductors 402.30±118.84 2.42±0.37 1.28±0.39 0.94±0.81 0.20±0.05 0.75±0.03 
Knee flexors 890.81±261.32 4.14±0.31 2.72±0.37 5.69±2.33 0.33±0.08 0.65±0.06 
Knee extensors 711.83±250.48 3.01±0.18 1.49±0.20 16.77±4.83 0.42±0.14 0.50±0.06 
Plantarflexors 371.56±117.83 3.04±0.22 1.19±0.15 14.88±2.21 0.27±0.07 0.40±0.05 
Dorsiflexors 271.17±15.90 2.49±0.38 1.39±0.13 9.17±2.05 0.16±0.11 0.58±0.06 

Values are means ± s.e.m.

Lf, fiber length normalized to a sarcomere length of 2.4 μm; Lm, muscle length normalized to a sarcomere length of 2.4 μm; PSCA, physiological cross-sectional area

*

`Typical' rat hindlimb muscles (see text)

Anti-gravity muscles

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