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Table 3.

Joint torque impulse measured during four experimental conditions

Torque impulse (Nm s)
Degrees of freedom (d.f.)Straight left (SL)Straight right (SR)Crossover (TL)Sidestep (TR)
Hip Y (extension) 0.86±0.35 0.51±0.34 1.33±0.34 1.31±0.34* 
    Z (valgus) 3.86±0.27 -3.59±0.25 4.14±0.25 -4.02±0.23 
    X (rotation) 2.71±0.26 -3.08±0.24 3.36±0.25 -3.22±0.22 
Knee Y (flexion) -0.76±0.25 -1.09±0.23 0.66±0.24* -1.66±0.22 
    Z (valgus) 8.71±0.54 -8.53±0.50 10.07±0.52 -7.24±0.47 
    X (rotation) -2.23±0.16 2.03±0.15 -2.71±0.15 1.89±0.14 
Ankle Y (extension) 5.07±0.67 4.57±0.67 5.91±0.67* 5.27±0.67* 
    Z (valgus) 0.67±0.24 -0.89±0.23 1.51±0.23* 0.15±0.22* 
    X (rotation) -0.60±0.06 0.72±0.06 -0.58±0.06 0.74±0.05 
MTP Y (extension) 3.39±0.37 3.07±0.37 3.93±0.37* 3.51±0.37* 
    Z (valgus) -1.97±0.22 2.02±0.20 -1.36±0.21 2.27±0.19 
    X (rotation) 0.26±0.09 0.11±0.09 0.94±0.09* 0.97±0.09* 
Torque impulse (Nm s)
Degrees of freedom (d.f.)Straight left (SL)Straight right (SR)Crossover (TL)Sidestep (TR)
Hip Y (extension) 0.86±0.35 0.51±0.34 1.33±0.34 1.31±0.34* 
    Z (valgus) 3.86±0.27 -3.59±0.25 4.14±0.25 -4.02±0.23 
    X (rotation) 2.71±0.26 -3.08±0.24 3.36±0.25 -3.22±0.22 
Knee Y (flexion) -0.76±0.25 -1.09±0.23 0.66±0.24* -1.66±0.22 
    Z (valgus) 8.71±0.54 -8.53±0.50 10.07±0.52 -7.24±0.47 
    X (rotation) -2.23±0.16 2.03±0.15 -2.71±0.15 1.89±0.14 
Ankle Y (extension) 5.07±0.67 4.57±0.67 5.91±0.67* 5.27±0.67* 
    Z (valgus) 0.67±0.24 -0.89±0.23 1.51±0.23* 0.15±0.22* 
    X (rotation) -0.60±0.06 0.72±0.06 -0.58±0.06 0.74±0.05 
MTP Y (extension) 3.39±0.37 3.07±0.37 3.93±0.37* 3.51±0.37* 
    Z (valgus) -1.97±0.22 2.02±0.20 -1.36±0.21 2.27±0.19 
    X (rotation) 0.26±0.09 0.11±0.09 0.94±0.09* 0.97±0.09* 

Values are least-squared means ± s.e.m. Asterisks indicate significant differences between values for the same leg during turning relative to straight running.

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