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Table 2.

Kinematic excursion and lateral jet velocity phase lag

GroupObserved kinematic phase lagExpected kinematic phase lagObserved vs expected phase lag; post-hoc LSM P-valueLateral jet velocity phase lagObserved kinematic vs jet phase lag; post-hoc LSM P-value
Steady swimming at 0.5 L s-1      
Anal fin–dorsal fin 21.22±1.60 23.32±1.40 0.2298 16.97±2.37 0.0001* 
Dorsal fin–body -3.82±1.45 -9.10±1.02 0.0001*   
Anal fin–body 17.56±0.75 13.98±0.59 0.0001*   
Steady swimming at 1.0 L s-1      
Anal fin–dorsal fin 28.51±1.51 23.94±0.90 0.2298 9.07±1.95 0.0001* 
Dorsal fin–body -6.06±1.36 -9.80±0.90 0.0001*   
Anal fin–body 22.35±1.25 14.15±0.51 0.0001*   
Manoeuvres at 0.5 L s-1      
Anal fin–dorsal fin 28.34±5.30 44.79±9.65 1.000 24.50±8.21 0.7758 
Dorsal fin–body -8.81±2.93 -20.71±4.82 1.000   
Anal fin–body 20.18±3.55 24.08±4.92 1.000   
GroupObserved kinematic phase lagExpected kinematic phase lagObserved vs expected phase lag; post-hoc LSM P-valueLateral jet velocity phase lagObserved kinematic vs jet phase lag; post-hoc LSM P-value
Steady swimming at 0.5 L s-1      
Anal fin–dorsal fin 21.22±1.60 23.32±1.40 0.2298 16.97±2.37 0.0001* 
Dorsal fin–body -3.82±1.45 -9.10±1.02 0.0001*   
Anal fin–body 17.56±0.75 13.98±0.59 0.0001*   
Steady swimming at 1.0 L s-1      
Anal fin–dorsal fin 28.51±1.51 23.94±0.90 0.2298 9.07±1.95 0.0001* 
Dorsal fin–body -6.06±1.36 -9.80±0.90 0.0001*   
Anal fin–body 22.35±1.25 14.15±0.51 0.0001*   
Manoeuvres at 0.5 L s-1      
Anal fin–dorsal fin 28.34±5.30 44.79±9.65 1.000 24.50±8.21 0.7758 
Dorsal fin–body -8.81±2.93 -20.71±4.82 1.000   
Anal fin–body 20.18±3.55 24.08±4.92 1.000   

Values are percent of tailbeat cycle (mean ± s.e.m.)

Kinematic phase lag, N=23–36 for each comparison group and evenly distributed between four fish

Jet velocity phase lag, N=27–36 for each comparison group and evenly distributed between four fish

LSM comparisons based on four ANOVAs (*significantly different P<0.5, Bonferroni corrected)

Steady swimming ANOVA(1,5,3 total=401) phase lag = speed group fish speed×group speed×fish group×fish speed×group×fish

Manoeuvring ANOVA(5,3 total=150) phase lag = group fish group×fish

Jets vs kinematics steady swimming ANOVA(1,3 total=134)phase lag = group fish group×fish

Jets vs kinematics manoeuvres ANOVA(1,3 total=54) phase lag = group fish group×fish

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