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Table 1.

Comparison of the water requirements of pupae, males and females of Culex pipiens reared under diapausing and nondiapausing conditions

Pupae
Males
Females
CharacteristicND25ND18D18ND25ND18D18ND25ND18D18
Water content          
   Initial mass (mg) 3.45±0.09 3.47±0.08 3.59±0.11 2.01±0.10 2.10±0.20 2.15±0.15 3.60±0.10 3.66±0.12 5.16±0.21a 
   Dry mass (mg) 0.76±0.08 0.72±0.09 0.82±0.09 0.58±0.09 0.63±0.09 0.63±0.16 1.20±0.11 1.26±0.15 2.42±0.19a 
   Water mass (mg) 2.69±0.07 2.75±0.07 2.77±0.08 1.43±0.11 1.47±0.11 1.52±0.19 2.40±0.13 2.40±0.16 2.74±0.18 
   Water content (%) 77.9±1.4 79.2±1.6 77.1±1.1 71.2±1.8 70.8±1.3 70.8±1.2 66.7±1.3 65.5±1.4 53.1±1.2a 
Water loss          
   Rate (% h-17.17±0.16 7.26±0.11 7.08±0.13 5.08±0.09 4.80±0.10 4.71±0.15 3.57±0.14 3.37±0.15 2.31±0.16a 
   Loss tolerance (%) 29.2±0.9 28.9±1.1 30.1±1.4 33.1±1.0 33.3±1.3 33.9±1.1 35.4±0.9 36.3±1.2 35.5±1.7 
   CTT (°C) 36.2±2.1 35.3±1.7 36.3±1.3 39.4±2.1 38.3±2.8 38.3±1.9 41.2±1.8 40.3±1.9 41.4±1.8 
Water gain          
   Free water uptake NA NA NA 
    CEA (av1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
Pupae
Males
Females
CharacteristicND25ND18D18ND25ND18D18ND25ND18D18
Water content          
   Initial mass (mg) 3.45±0.09 3.47±0.08 3.59±0.11 2.01±0.10 2.10±0.20 2.15±0.15 3.60±0.10 3.66±0.12 5.16±0.21a 
   Dry mass (mg) 0.76±0.08 0.72±0.09 0.82±0.09 0.58±0.09 0.63±0.09 0.63±0.16 1.20±0.11 1.26±0.15 2.42±0.19a 
   Water mass (mg) 2.69±0.07 2.75±0.07 2.77±0.08 1.43±0.11 1.47±0.11 1.52±0.19 2.40±0.13 2.40±0.16 2.74±0.18 
   Water content (%) 77.9±1.4 79.2±1.6 77.1±1.1 71.2±1.8 70.8±1.3 70.8±1.2 66.7±1.3 65.5±1.4 53.1±1.2a 
Water loss          
   Rate (% h-17.17±0.16 7.26±0.11 7.08±0.13 5.08±0.09 4.80±0.10 4.71±0.15 3.57±0.14 3.37±0.15 2.31±0.16a 
   Loss tolerance (%) 29.2±0.9 28.9±1.1 30.1±1.4 33.1±1.0 33.3±1.3 33.9±1.1 35.4±0.9 36.3±1.2 35.5±1.7 
   CTT (°C) 36.2±2.1 35.3±1.7 36.3±1.3 39.4±2.1 38.3±2.8 38.3±1.9 41.2±1.8 40.3±1.9 41.4±1.8 
Water gain          
   Free water uptake NA NA NA 
    CEA (av1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 

ND25, mosquitoes reared under a nondiapausing photoperiod (15 h:9 h, L:D)at 25°C; ND18, mosquitoes reared under a nondiapausing photoperiod at 18°C; D18, mosquitoes reared under a diapausing photoperiod (9 h:15 h,L:D) at 18°C; CTT, critical transition temperature; CEA, critical equilibrium humidity; +, does occur; NA, not applicable

Superscript letters indicate that a value is significantly different for environmental condition within a particular stage or sex. Values are means± s.e.m. of 60 individuals

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