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Table 1.

The taxonomic range of desiccation tolerance

GroupKnown occurrenceSelected references
Nematodes Many species Wharton (2003); Treonis and Wall (2005) 
Rotifers Many species, including most species tested in the order Bdelloidea Ricci and Caprioli (2005) 
Tardigrades Many species Wright (2001); Jönsson and Järemo (2003) 
Crustaceans Encysted embryos of several genera of anostracans, including brine and fairy shrimps Mitchell (1990); Clegg(2005) 
Arthropods Larva of the fly Polypedilum vanderplanki Watanabe et al. (2004);Kikawada et al. (2005) 
Lichens Most species tested Kappen and Valladares (1999) 
Yeasts Some species Garay-Arroyo et al. (2000) 
Other fungi Some species Mazur (1968) 
Mosses Most species tested Proctor and Tuba (2002) 
Liverworts Many species Proctor and Tuba (2002) 
Pteridophytes Perhaps 50 species as sporophytes, probably many as spores, some as gametophytes Pence (2000); Porembski and Barthlott (2000) 
Gymnosperms No adults but some seeds and pollen Porembski and Barthlott(2000); Dickie and Prichard(2002); Hoekstra(2002) 
Angiosperms About 300 species as adults, over 95% of species as seeds, perhaps most pollen Porembski and Barthlott(2000); Hoekstra(2002); Tweddle et al.(2003) 
Bacteria Many species, including cyanobacteria Billi and Potts (2002); Buedel et al. (2002); de la Torre et al. (2003) 
Terrestrial microalgae Many species Trainor and Gladych (1995) 
Marine macroalgae The intertidal red alga Porphyra dentata Abe et al. (2001) 
GroupKnown occurrenceSelected references
Nematodes Many species Wharton (2003); Treonis and Wall (2005) 
Rotifers Many species, including most species tested in the order Bdelloidea Ricci and Caprioli (2005) 
Tardigrades Many species Wright (2001); Jönsson and Järemo (2003) 
Crustaceans Encysted embryos of several genera of anostracans, including brine and fairy shrimps Mitchell (1990); Clegg(2005) 
Arthropods Larva of the fly Polypedilum vanderplanki Watanabe et al. (2004);Kikawada et al. (2005) 
Lichens Most species tested Kappen and Valladares (1999) 
Yeasts Some species Garay-Arroyo et al. (2000) 
Other fungi Some species Mazur (1968) 
Mosses Most species tested Proctor and Tuba (2002) 
Liverworts Many species Proctor and Tuba (2002) 
Pteridophytes Perhaps 50 species as sporophytes, probably many as spores, some as gametophytes Pence (2000); Porembski and Barthlott (2000) 
Gymnosperms No adults but some seeds and pollen Porembski and Barthlott(2000); Dickie and Prichard(2002); Hoekstra(2002) 
Angiosperms About 300 species as adults, over 95% of species as seeds, perhaps most pollen Porembski and Barthlott(2000); Hoekstra(2002); Tweddle et al.(2003) 
Bacteria Many species, including cyanobacteria Billi and Potts (2002); Buedel et al. (2002); de la Torre et al. (2003) 
Terrestrial microalgae Many species Trainor and Gladych (1995) 
Marine macroalgae The intertidal red alga Porphyra dentata Abe et al. (2001) 
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