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Table 1.

Characteristics of the five pairs of skates used during the experiments

DateMaterialBlade length (mm)Blade width (mm)Foot height (mm)Mass (pair) (g)Dynamic μMetabolic cost (J kg-1 m-1)
1800 BC Animal bone 210 14 36 1450* 0.0103±0.0022 4.62±0.91 
1200 AD Ash and iron 230 59 1300 0.0147±0.0011 2.46±0.75 
1400 AD Ash and iron 250 45 900 0.0112±0.0007 2.01±0.35 
1700 AD Birch and steel 410 1.3 50 950 0.0084±0.0010 1.78±0.28 
2004 AD Fibreglass, carbon fibre, Kevlar®, steel 460 62 930 0.0058±0.0004 1.32±0.27 
DateMaterialBlade length (mm)Blade width (mm)Foot height (mm)Mass (pair) (g)Dynamic μMetabolic cost (J kg-1 m-1)
1800 BC Animal bone 210 14 36 1450* 0.0103±0.0022 4.62±0.91 
1200 AD Ash and iron 230 59 1300 0.0147±0.0011 2.46±0.75 
1400 AD Ash and iron 250 45 900 0.0112±0.0007 2.01±0.35 
1700 AD Birch and steel 410 1.3 50 950 0.0084±0.0010 1.78±0.28 
2004 AD Fibreglass, carbon fibre, Kevlar®, steel 460 62 930 0.0058±0.0004 1.32±0.27 

The mean values and standard deviation of the dynamic coefficient of friction (μ) measured is reported, as well as the metabolic cost (averaged between the speeds considered). Since the bone skates did not have a blade,measurements reported here show the dimensions of the underside of the bone,the part that was in contact with the ice while skating.

*

Includes pole.

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