Table 2.

Jumping performance of froghoppers

Body mass, Mb (mg)Body length (mm)Time to take-off (ms)Take-off velocity, v (m s−1)Acceleration (m s−2)g forceEnergy (μJ)Power (mW)Force (mN)
Neophilaenus
Best 3.2 4.0 4.2 4200 428 28 28 13
Philaenus
Averagea 12.3 6.1 2.8 2800 286 48 48 34
Best   0.875 4.7 5400 550 136 155 66
Lepyronia
Averageb 17.6 7.2 1.5 2667 272 141 94 .47
Best    4.6 3067 313 190 127 54
Aphrophora
Averageb 28.3 9.6 1.5 2.5 1667 170 88 59 47
Best    3.4 2267 231 164 109 64
Cercopis
Best 32.9 9.5 1.5 3.8 2533 258 238 158 83
Body mass, Mb (mg)Body length (mm)Time to take-off (ms)Take-off velocity, v (m s−1)Acceleration (m s−2)g forceEnergy (μJ)Power (mW)Force (mN)
Neophilaenus
Best 3.2 4.0 4.2 4200 428 28 28 13
Philaenus
Averagea 12.3 6.1 2.8 2800 286 48 48 34
Best   0.875 4.7 5400 550 136 155 66
Lepyronia
Averageb 17.6 7.2 1.5 2667 272 141 94 .47
Best    4.6 3067 313 190 127 54
Aphrophora
Averageb 28.3 9.6 1.5 2.5 1667 170 88 59 47
Best    3.4 2267 231 164 109 64
Cercopis
Best 32.9 9.5 1.5 3.8 2533 258 238 158 83

a(N=10 jumps by 5 insects); b(N=10 jumps by 4 insects). N, number of jumps used to determine time to take-off and take-off velocity.

Formulae: acceleration f=vlt; g=fl9.86; energy e=0.5Mbv2;power=elt; force=Mbf.

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