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Table 2.

Jumping performance of froghoppers

Body mass, Mb (mg)Body length (mm)Time to take-off (ms)Take-off velocity, v (m s−1)Acceleration (m s−2)g forceEnergy (μJ)Power (mW)Force (mN)
Neophilaenus          
Best 3.2 4.0 4.2 4200 428 28 28 13 
Philaenus          
Averagea 12.3 6.1 2.8 2800 286 48 48 34 
Best   0.875 4.7 5400 550 136 155 66 
Lepyronia          
Averageb 17.6 7.2 1.5 2667 272 141 94 .47 
Best    4.6 3067 313 190 127 54 
Aphrophora          
Averageb 28.3 9.6 1.5 2.5 1667 170 88 59 47 
Best    3.4 2267 231 164 109 64 
Cercopis          
Best 32.9 9.5 1.5 3.8 2533 258 238 158 83 
Body mass, Mb (mg)Body length (mm)Time to take-off (ms)Take-off velocity, v (m s−1)Acceleration (m s−2)g forceEnergy (μJ)Power (mW)Force (mN)
Neophilaenus          
Best 3.2 4.0 4.2 4200 428 28 28 13 
Philaenus          
Averagea 12.3 6.1 2.8 2800 286 48 48 34 
Best   0.875 4.7 5400 550 136 155 66 
Lepyronia          
Averageb 17.6 7.2 1.5 2667 272 141 94 .47 
Best    4.6 3067 313 190 127 54 
Aphrophora          
Averageb 28.3 9.6 1.5 2.5 1667 170 88 59 47 
Best    3.4 2267 231 164 109 64 
Cercopis          
Best 32.9 9.5 1.5 3.8 2533 258 238 158 83 

a(N=10 jumps by 5 insects); b(N=10 jumps by 4 insects). N, number of jumps used to determine time to take-off and take-off velocity.

Formulae: acceleration f=vlt; g=fl9.86; energy e=0.5Mbv2;power=elt; force=Mbf.

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