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Table 1.

Chemical compounds used for in vivo studies on isolated vela and in vitro studies on intact larvae

Concentration tested (mol 1−1)
ChemicalCommon nameDistributorAction in vertebratesEffectiveness in molluscsOn isolated velumIn intact larvae
5-Hydroxy-tryptamine hydrochloride Serotonin Sigma   10−6-10−9 10−4-10−6 
Arterenol bitartrate salt Nor-epinephrine Sigma   10−6-10−9 10−4-10−6 
Dopamine hydrochloride Dopamine Sigma   10−6-10−9 10−4-10−6 
Mianserin hydrochloride Mianserin Sigma 5-HT2 receptor antagonist(Willins et al., 1999) (Diefenbach et al., 1991; Uhler et al., 2000) NA 10−5 
Fluoxetine hydrochloride Fluoxetine Eli Lillya Serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (Fuller,1996) (Couper and Leise, 1996; Fong et al., 1998; Uhler et al., 2000) NA 10−5 
Spiperone hydrochloride Spiperone Sigma D2 antagonist (Amenta et al.,1999); alpha-adrenergic antagonist(Testa et al., 1993);5-HT2/5-HT1 (Geerts et al.,1999) (Green et al., 1996; Pechenik et al., 2002) NA 10−5 
Haloperidol Haloperidol Sigma D2-4 receptor antagonist with possible action on 5-HT receptors(Seeman, 2002) (Heiss et al., 1976; Voronezhskaya et al., 1993) NA 10−5 
Alprenolol Alprenolol Sigma β-adrenergic antagonist (Surman and Doggrell, 1993) (Marsden and Hassessian, 1986)(polychaete) NA 10−5 
FMRFamide FMRFamide Sigma   10−6-10−9 10−6 
Leu-enkephalin Leu-enkephalin Sigma   10−6-10−9 10−6 
Concentration tested (mol 1−1)
ChemicalCommon nameDistributorAction in vertebratesEffectiveness in molluscsOn isolated velumIn intact larvae
5-Hydroxy-tryptamine hydrochloride Serotonin Sigma   10−6-10−9 10−4-10−6 
Arterenol bitartrate salt Nor-epinephrine Sigma   10−6-10−9 10−4-10−6 
Dopamine hydrochloride Dopamine Sigma   10−6-10−9 10−4-10−6 
Mianserin hydrochloride Mianserin Sigma 5-HT2 receptor antagonist(Willins et al., 1999) (Diefenbach et al., 1991; Uhler et al., 2000) NA 10−5 
Fluoxetine hydrochloride Fluoxetine Eli Lillya Serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (Fuller,1996) (Couper and Leise, 1996; Fong et al., 1998; Uhler et al., 2000) NA 10−5 
Spiperone hydrochloride Spiperone Sigma D2 antagonist (Amenta et al.,1999); alpha-adrenergic antagonist(Testa et al., 1993);5-HT2/5-HT1 (Geerts et al.,1999) (Green et al., 1996; Pechenik et al., 2002) NA 10−5 
Haloperidol Haloperidol Sigma D2-4 receptor antagonist with possible action on 5-HT receptors(Seeman, 2002) (Heiss et al., 1976; Voronezhskaya et al., 1993) NA 10−5 
Alprenolol Alprenolol Sigma β-adrenergic antagonist (Surman and Doggrell, 1993) (Marsden and Hassessian, 1986)(polychaete) NA 10−5 
FMRFamide FMRFamide Sigma   10−6-10−9 10−6 
Leu-enkephalin Leu-enkephalin Sigma   10−6-10−9 10−6 

Additional references to transmitters are given in the text or involve common knowledge. NA, not applicable.

a

Eli Lilly, Toronto, ON, Canada.

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