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Table 1.

Limb kinematic parameters during stance phase

Kinematic parameterLimbLevelInclineDeclineSubstrate differences
Height (cm)      
    Shoulder, TD FL 2.59±0.09* 2.28±0.08* 2.40±0.09* L>U, L=D, U=D 
    Hip, TD HL 3.76±0.10 3.81±0.13 3.21±0.10 L=U, L>D, U>D 
    Shoulder, MS FL 2.17±0.09* 2.02±0.07* 2.14±0.08* L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Hip, MS HL 3.44±0.09 3.30±0.11 2.82±0.09 L=U, L>D, U>D 
    Shoulder, LO FL 2.49±0.09* 2.18±0.08* 2.38±0.08* L>U, L=D, U=D 
    Hip, LO HL 3.62±0.09 3.66±0.12 3.12±0.10 L=U, L>D, U>D 
Angle (degrees)      
    Craniocaudal, TD FL 101.4±2.0* 107.5±1.7 114.8±1.8 L<U, L<D, U=D 
    Craniocaudal, TD HL 105.9±1.7 111.7±2.7 113.7±2.2 L<U, L<D, U=D 
    Craniocaudal, MS FL 61.9±2.1 68.8±1.2 73.0±2.0 L<U, L<D, U<D 
    Craniocaudal, MS HL 60.2±1.8 67.6±3.1 77.1±2.2 L<U, L<D, U<D 
    Craniocaudal, LO FL 27.0±1.2* 29.6±0.8* 33.5±1.8* L=U, L<D, U<D 
    Craniocaudal, LO HL 41.0±1.3 40.7±1.7 50.2±1.4 L=U, L<D, U<D 
    Mediolateral, TD FL 84.3±1.8* 78.9±1.7* 81.9±1.2* L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Mediolateral, TD HL 75.6±2.0 74.9±2.7 68.9±1.9 L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Mediolateral, MS FL 83.3±1.8 83.0±1.2 82.0±1.0 L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Mediolateral, MS HL 83.5±1.5 82.5±1.9 77.5±1.6 L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Mediolateral, LO FL 84.5±1.7 85.4±0.9 85.6±1.0 L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Mediolateral, LO HL 81.1±2.0 84.4±0.8 83.6±1.5 L=U, L=D, U=D 
Kinematic parameterLimbLevelInclineDeclineSubstrate differences
Height (cm)      
    Shoulder, TD FL 2.59±0.09* 2.28±0.08* 2.40±0.09* L>U, L=D, U=D 
    Hip, TD HL 3.76±0.10 3.81±0.13 3.21±0.10 L=U, L>D, U>D 
    Shoulder, MS FL 2.17±0.09* 2.02±0.07* 2.14±0.08* L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Hip, MS HL 3.44±0.09 3.30±0.11 2.82±0.09 L=U, L>D, U>D 
    Shoulder, LO FL 2.49±0.09* 2.18±0.08* 2.38±0.08* L>U, L=D, U=D 
    Hip, LO HL 3.62±0.09 3.66±0.12 3.12±0.10 L=U, L>D, U>D 
Angle (degrees)      
    Craniocaudal, TD FL 101.4±2.0* 107.5±1.7 114.8±1.8 L<U, L<D, U=D 
    Craniocaudal, TD HL 105.9±1.7 111.7±2.7 113.7±2.2 L<U, L<D, U=D 
    Craniocaudal, MS FL 61.9±2.1 68.8±1.2 73.0±2.0 L<U, L<D, U<D 
    Craniocaudal, MS HL 60.2±1.8 67.6±3.1 77.1±2.2 L<U, L<D, U<D 
    Craniocaudal, LO FL 27.0±1.2* 29.6±0.8* 33.5±1.8* L=U, L<D, U<D 
    Craniocaudal, LO HL 41.0±1.3 40.7±1.7 50.2±1.4 L=U, L<D, U<D 
    Mediolateral, TD FL 84.3±1.8* 78.9±1.7* 81.9±1.2* L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Mediolateral, TD HL 75.6±2.0 74.9±2.7 68.9±1.9 L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Mediolateral, MS FL 83.3±1.8 83.0±1.2 82.0±1.0 L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Mediolateral, MS HL 83.5±1.5 82.5±1.9 77.5±1.6 L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Mediolateral, LO FL 84.5±1.7 85.4±0.9 85.6±1.0 L=U, L=D, U=D 
    Mediolateral, LO HL 81.1±2.0 84.4±0.8 83.6±1.5 L=U, L=D, U=D 

Values are means ± s.e.m. (N=97).

TD, touchdown; MS, midstance; LO, lift-off; FL, forelimb; HL, hindlimb; L,level; U, incline; D, decline.

*

Significant difference between limb pairs on that substrate. >,significantly greater than; =, not significantly different; <,significantly less than, using the sequential Bonferroni correction(Rice, 1989).

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