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Table 1.

Summary of mechanical properties in cortices of equine MC3s

Energy [(J m−3)×105]
Yield
Ultimate
Elastic modulus (GPa)
Test modeCortical regionNPre-yieldPost-yieldTotalStress (MPa)Strain (%)Stress (MPa)Strain (%)
Tension           
Dorsal-Lateral (T) 12 14.93 (2.26)C,D,E,F 37.51 (12.96)C,D,E,F 52.44 (14.38)D,E 148.59 (15.45)C,F 1.00 (0.07)C,D,E,F 161.20 (17.73)C,F 3.38 (0.79)D,F 17.81 (1.86)C,D,E,F 
Palmar-Medial (C) 17 15.22 (3.27)C,D,E,F 42.30 (14.82)C,D,E,F 57.52 (14.95)D,E,F 148.07 (17.36)C,F 1.02 (0.15)C,D,E,F 163.85 (17.02)C,F 3.73 (0.84)D,E,F 17.26 (2.21)C,D,E,F 
Compression           
Dorsal-Lateral (T) 20 29.89 (6.97)A,B,D,E 18.26 (16.39)A,B 48.14 (35.44)D 172.04 (20.79)A,B,D,E 1.76 (0.50)A,B,D,E,F 182.87 (16.54)A,B,D 2.89 (2.50) 11.88 (3.04)A,B,F 
Palmar-Medial (C) 20 22.78 (4.14)A,B,C,F 10.29 (6.22)A,B 33.08 (5.28)A,B,C 157.71 (23.25)C,F 1.45 (0.15)A,B,C 170.28 (15.13)C,F 2.11 (0.49)A,B 12.98 (2.56)A,B 
Lateral (C) (C,T?) 21.21 (6.36)A,B,C,F 11.54 (11.12)A,B 32.75 (9.64)A,B 146.52 (40.70)C,F 1.44 (0.22)A,B,C 168.82 (13.37)F 2.25 (0.84)B 12.04 (3.87)A,B 
Dorsal-Medial (C) 10 28.39 (3.66)A,B,D,E 8.04 (7.22)A,B 36.44 (6.94)B 185.68 (23.85)A,B,D,E 1.53 (0.14)A,B,C 191.54 (21.72)A,B,D,E 2.00 (0.57)A,B 14.31 (2.76)A,B,C 
Energy [(J m−3)×105]
Yield
Ultimate
Elastic modulus (GPa)
Test modeCortical regionNPre-yieldPost-yieldTotalStress (MPa)Strain (%)Stress (MPa)Strain (%)
Tension           
Dorsal-Lateral (T) 12 14.93 (2.26)C,D,E,F 37.51 (12.96)C,D,E,F 52.44 (14.38)D,E 148.59 (15.45)C,F 1.00 (0.07)C,D,E,F 161.20 (17.73)C,F 3.38 (0.79)D,F 17.81 (1.86)C,D,E,F 
Palmar-Medial (C) 17 15.22 (3.27)C,D,E,F 42.30 (14.82)C,D,E,F 57.52 (14.95)D,E,F 148.07 (17.36)C,F 1.02 (0.15)C,D,E,F 163.85 (17.02)C,F 3.73 (0.84)D,E,F 17.26 (2.21)C,D,E,F 
Compression           
Dorsal-Lateral (T) 20 29.89 (6.97)A,B,D,E 18.26 (16.39)A,B 48.14 (35.44)D 172.04 (20.79)A,B,D,E 1.76 (0.50)A,B,D,E,F 182.87 (16.54)A,B,D 2.89 (2.50) 11.88 (3.04)A,B,F 
Palmar-Medial (C) 20 22.78 (4.14)A,B,C,F 10.29 (6.22)A,B 33.08 (5.28)A,B,C 157.71 (23.25)C,F 1.45 (0.15)A,B,C 170.28 (15.13)C,F 2.11 (0.49)A,B 12.98 (2.56)A,B 
Lateral (C) (C,T?) 21.21 (6.36)A,B,C,F 11.54 (11.12)A,B 32.75 (9.64)A,B 146.52 (40.70)C,F 1.44 (0.22)A,B,C 168.82 (13.37)F 2.25 (0.84)B 12.04 (3.87)A,B 
Dorsal-Medial (C) 10 28.39 (3.66)A,B,D,E 8.04 (7.22)A,B 36.44 (6.94)B 185.68 (23.85)A,B,D,E 1.53 (0.14)A,B,C 191.54 (21.72)A,B,D,E 2.00 (0.57)A,B 14.31 (2.76)A,B,C 

Values are means (± s.d.).

Most mechanical properties have been reported previously(Skedros et al., 2003a).

N=number of specimens.

(T)=Specimen obtained from region subject to habitually prevalent/predominant tensile strains.

(C)=Specimen obtained from region subject to habitually prevalent/predominant compressive strains.

The lateral cortex receives predominant tension at higher gait speeds.

A-FSignificantly different (P<0.05) from test mode/region indicated by superscripted letter.

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