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Table 1.

Summary of homing results from pigeons released at two sites

Release siteGroupNnαrhcvt (s)hp (km h−1)
Bolgheri SS 12 12 098° 0.18 −0.10 241″ 2.7 
 V1 12 10 245° 0.56* −0.01 225″ 6.6 
 ON 12 11 183° 0.91*** −0.81 217″ Lost 
Marinella SS 12 12 173° 0.84*** +0.79*** 169″ Day after 
 V1 12 11 182° 0.85*** +0.75*** 176″ 6.6 
 ON 12 11 145° 0.02 +0.02 273″ Lost 
Pooled results SS 24 24 031° 0.41* +0.35** 218″ Day after 
 V1 24 21 351° 0.39* +0.39** 181″ 6.6 
 ON 24 22 208° 0.44* −0.39 252″ Lost 
Release siteGroupNnαrhcvt (s)hp (km h−1)
Bolgheri SS 12 12 098° 0.18 −0.10 241″ 2.7 
 V1 12 10 245° 0.56* −0.01 225″ 6.6 
 ON 12 11 183° 0.91*** −0.81 217″ Lost 
Marinella SS 12 12 173° 0.84*** +0.79*** 169″ Day after 
 V1 12 11 182° 0.85*** +0.75*** 176″ 6.6 
 ON 12 11 145° 0.02 +0.02 273″ Lost 
Pooled results SS 24 24 031° 0.41* +0.35** 218″ Day after 
 V1 24 21 351° 0.39* +0.39** 181″ 6.6 
 ON 24 22 208° 0.44* −0.39 252″ Lost 

Bolgheri release site: home direction 336°, distance, 54.8 km, date of release, 5/8/05; Marinella release site: home direction 154°, distance,57.4 km, date of release, 13/8/05.

Groups: SS, sham operated control pigeons; V1, pigeons subjected to the resection of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve; ON, pigeons subjected to the resection of the olfactory nerve.

N, number of birds released; n, number of birds for which the initial orientation was recorded; α, mean vector direction; r, mean vector length; hc, rcos(α-β), whereβ is the home direction; vt, median vanishing time (s); hp, homing performance: median homing speed in km h−1 is reported when available; `day after' and `lost' means that more than half the birds homed the day after the release, homed in the subsequent days or were lost;asterisks in the r and hc columns indicate the results of the Rayleigh and V-test respectively; *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

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