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Table 1.

Number of lordotic tadpoles in relation to the age at onset of microgravity and the period of μg-exposure during the mission

SMM-06AndromèdeD-21AndromèdeSMM-062SMM-063SL-J4
STS-84Soyuz-taxi/ISSSTS-55Soyuz-taxi/ISSSTS-84STS-84STS-47
Year1997200119932001199719971994
Stage at launch25-2826-2733-364542-4325-28Fertil. in μg
Duration (days)99109997
Days of μgWhole mission
Whole mission
Whole mission
Whole mission
FD5-FD9
FD1-FD5
FD2-FD7
NLN%NLN%NLN%NLN%NLN%NLN%NLN%
First observation 25 26.5 14 77.8 16 15.8 75.0 15 13 53.6 32 100 100   
Mean stage 47.1 47.0  46.3 46.0  45.0 44.9  47.0 46.7  47.2 47.0  47.1 −  46   
Days after 0g 1-4   2-4   2-6   2-4   1-4   1-4   Post-flight H/O   
Second observation 22 75.9    50.0    20 87.0 29 100    
Mean stage 48.3 47.7     46.5 46.0     48.6 47.3  48.5 −     
Days after 0g 8-11      9-12      8-11   8-11      
Third observation5 27 96.4          22 95.7 29 100    
Days after 0g 14            14   14      
SMM-06AndromèdeD-21AndromèdeSMM-062SMM-063SL-J4
STS-84Soyuz-taxi/ISSSTS-55Soyuz-taxi/ISSSTS-84STS-84STS-47
Year1997200119932001199719971994
Stage at launch25-2826-2733-364542-4325-28Fertil. in μg
Duration (days)99109997
Days of μgWhole mission
Whole mission
Whole mission
Whole mission
FD5-FD9
FD1-FD5
FD2-FD7
NLN%NLN%NLN%NLN%NLN%NLN%NLN%
First observation 25 26.5 14 77.8 16 15.8 75.0 15 13 53.6 32 100 100   
Mean stage 47.1 47.0  46.3 46.0  45.0 44.9  47.0 46.7  47.2 47.0  47.1 −  46   
Days after 0g 1-4   2-4   2-6   2-4   1-4   1-4   Post-flight H/O   
Second observation 22 75.9    50.0    20 87.0 29 100    
Mean stage 48.3 47.7     46.5 46.0     48.6 47.3  48.5 −     
Days after 0g 8-11      9-12      8-11   8-11      
Third observation5 27 96.4          22 95.7 29 100    
Days after 0g 14            14   14      

FD, flight day; N, normal shape; L, lordotic shape; N%, percentage of normal tadpoles.

1Data from the rVOR component of the STATEX project; 2after exposure to 1g in the BIORACK centrifuge for 4 days; 3after FD5, exposure to 1g in the BIORACK centrifuge; 4fertilization in orbit not before 34 h after launch,stages immediately after handover (H/O) of the samples at the landing day[data from the Japanese Spacelab mission SL-J(Souza et al., 1995)]; 5stages were not determined at 14 days after landing.

Lordotic animals were also observed in two other experiments with pre-flight fertilized eggs of Xenopus (stage 25 at launch). One of them was performed on the Russian Cosmos 2229 satellite (11.5-daysμ g), the other on the Japanese Spacelab mission SL-J(STS-47). These experiments are not included in the table because the authors(Snetkova et al., 1995) gave no numbers of lordotic tadpoles. Stages are defined according to published tables (Nieuwkoop and Faber,1967).

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