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Table 1.

Stiffness and effective elastic modulus of gecko setal arrays as a function of loading and unloading direction

Along natural drag path and curvature (+45°)Vertical (0°)Against natural drag path and curvature (−45°)
Number of tokay geckos 
Number of setal arrays 26 26 26 
Number of observations 500 504 516 
Array stiffness (karray) (N mm−1   
Loading 1.0±0.03 1.0±0.03 1.28±0.04 
Unloading stiffness 0.9±0.03 1.05±0.03 1.31±0.04 
Setal stiffness (kseta) (N m−1   
Loading 0.08±0.004 0.08±0.003 0.11±0.004 
Unloading 0.08±0.003 0.09±0.003 0.11±0.004 
Effective modulus (Eeff) (kPa)    
Loading 86±4.4 83±4.0 110±4.7 
Unloading 78±3.8 89±3.8 113±4.9 
Coefficient of friction (μeff0.29±0.01 0.24±0.004 
Along natural drag path and curvature (+45°)Vertical (0°)Against natural drag path and curvature (−45°)
Number of tokay geckos 
Number of setal arrays 26 26 26 
Number of observations 500 504 516 
Array stiffness (karray) (N mm−1   
Loading 1.0±0.03 1.0±0.03 1.28±0.04 
Unloading stiffness 0.9±0.03 1.05±0.03 1.31±0.04 
Setal stiffness (kseta) (N m−1   
Loading 0.08±0.004 0.08±0.003 0.11±0.004 
Unloading 0.08±0.003 0.09±0.003 0.11±0.004 
Effective modulus (Eeff) (kPa)    
Loading 86±4.4 83±4.0 110±4.7 
Unloading 78±3.8 89±3.8 113±4.9 
Coefficient of friction (μeff0.29±0.01 0.24±0.004 

Values are means ± s.e.m.

Coefficient of friction values are for setal arrays sliding on PTFE. Motion protocols for loading and unloading are illustrated in Fig. 5.

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