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Table 1.

Activities of enzymes of intermediary metabolism in liver, kidney and heart from the freshwater ocellate river stingray (Potamotrygon motoro),white-edge whip ray (Himantura signifer) in freshwater, H. signifer in half-strength seawater, the marine blue-spotted ribbontail stingray (Taeniura lymma), and the seawater brownbanded bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum)

P. motoro (FW)H. signifer (FW)H. signifer (½ SW)T. lymma (SW)C. punctatum (SW)
Liver      
    CCO 3.21±0.42e,KH 4.32±0.28 (8)e,KH 4.81±0.45 (7)e,KH 5.54±0.86e 17.0±1.6 (4)abcd,H 
    CPT 0.27±0.03bcde,KH 0.77±0.07 (9)a,KH 0.63±0.05 (7)a,KH 0.62±0.04a,KH 1.09±0.28 (3)a,H 
    COT 0.26±0.04bc,KH 1.26±0.26 (9)ad,KH 0.71±0.14 (7)ad,KH 0.18±0.04bce,KH 0.64±0.13 (3)d,H 
    HOAD 2.55±0.43bc,KH 6.90±0.57 (9)ade,KH 7.40±1.01 (7)ade,KH 4.98±0.35bc,KH 2.53±0.13 (4)bc,KH 
    d-β-HBDH 6.03±0.99e,K 8.47±0.66de,KH 7.81±0.93de,K 3.77±0.39bc,KH 2.08±0.37(4)abc,H 
    PK 16.3±0.7de,KH 15.5±1.2de,KH 14.9±0.7de,KH 21.9±1.1abce,KH 7.31±1.05 (4)abcd,KH 
    GDH 36.0±5.4de,KH 31.7±3.4 (9)de,KH 25.7±2.6 (7)de,KH 6.33±0.45abc,K 9.62±0.40 (4)abc,KH 
Kidney      
    CCO 9.53±0.97e,L 14.2±1.6e,L 15.4±0.85L 10.2±1.6 (5)e 21.7±2.3abd,H 
    CPT 0.13±0.01de,LH 0.17±0.02de,LH 0.15±0.01de,L 1.31±0.06abce,LH 0.53±0.04abcd,H 
    COT 0.082±0.021bcde,L 0.20±0.01ade,L 0.20±0.01ade,L 0.29±0.04 abce,LH 0.53±0.07abcd,H 
    HOAD 0.55±0.04de,L 0.82±0.09d,L 0.83±0.04d,L 1.71±0.17abce,LH 0.98±0.10ad,L 
    d-β-HBDH 2.28±0.28de,L 2.21±0.12de,LH 1.90±0.09de,LH 0.04±0.02abce,LH 0.92±0.12abcd 
    PK 81.1±4.3bcde,L 54.9±1.3ae,LH 55.6±1.9ae,LH 58.4±1.4ae,LH 27.0±2.7abcd,LH 
    GDH 13.7±1.4de,LK 9.62±1.04de,L 12.6±0.8de,LH,* 53.4±3.3abce,LH 26.5±2.7abcd,LH 
Heart      
    CCO 12.3±0.7 (4)de,L 12.9±2.0 (5)de,L 14.4±1.4 (5)de,L 5.87±0.95 (4)abce 39.9±2.7abcd,LK 
    CPT 0.033±0.010bcd,LK 0.072±0.003ae,LK 0.088±0.014ae,L 0.085±0.008ae,LK 0.010±0.004bcd,LK 
    COT 0.060±0.017bc,L,† 0.199±0.016ade,L,† 0.182±0.016ade,L,† 0.060±0.019bc,LK 0.066±0.019bc,LK,† 
    HOAD 0.37±0.03 (5)bcde,L 0.72±0.07ae,L 0.70±0.08ae,L 0.78±0.09ae,LK 1.23±0.10abcd,L 
    d-β-HBDH 3.82±0.20 (5)bce 10.9±0.6ade,LK 9.50±0.90ade,K 2.48±0.43bc,LK 0.87±0.24abc,L 
    PK 83.9±5.7 (5)L 77.5±4.1LK 85.0±7.4LK 104.1±4.7LK 84.0±16.4LK 
    GDH 2.66±0.21 (5)b,LH 4.60±0.32a,L 4.19±0.30LK 3.31±0.67K 4.24±0.30LK 
P. motoro (FW)H. signifer (FW)H. signifer (½ SW)T. lymma (SW)C. punctatum (SW)
Liver      
    CCO 3.21±0.42e,KH 4.32±0.28 (8)e,KH 4.81±0.45 (7)e,KH 5.54±0.86e 17.0±1.6 (4)abcd,H 
    CPT 0.27±0.03bcde,KH 0.77±0.07 (9)a,KH 0.63±0.05 (7)a,KH 0.62±0.04a,KH 1.09±0.28 (3)a,H 
    COT 0.26±0.04bc,KH 1.26±0.26 (9)ad,KH 0.71±0.14 (7)ad,KH 0.18±0.04bce,KH 0.64±0.13 (3)d,H 
    HOAD 2.55±0.43bc,KH 6.90±0.57 (9)ade,KH 7.40±1.01 (7)ade,KH 4.98±0.35bc,KH 2.53±0.13 (4)bc,KH 
    d-β-HBDH 6.03±0.99e,K 8.47±0.66de,KH 7.81±0.93de,K 3.77±0.39bc,KH 2.08±0.37(4)abc,H 
    PK 16.3±0.7de,KH 15.5±1.2de,KH 14.9±0.7de,KH 21.9±1.1abce,KH 7.31±1.05 (4)abcd,KH 
    GDH 36.0±5.4de,KH 31.7±3.4 (9)de,KH 25.7±2.6 (7)de,KH 6.33±0.45abc,K 9.62±0.40 (4)abc,KH 
Kidney      
    CCO 9.53±0.97e,L 14.2±1.6e,L 15.4±0.85L 10.2±1.6 (5)e 21.7±2.3abd,H 
    CPT 0.13±0.01de,LH 0.17±0.02de,LH 0.15±0.01de,L 1.31±0.06abce,LH 0.53±0.04abcd,H 
    COT 0.082±0.021bcde,L 0.20±0.01ade,L 0.20±0.01ade,L 0.29±0.04 abce,LH 0.53±0.07abcd,H 
    HOAD 0.55±0.04de,L 0.82±0.09d,L 0.83±0.04d,L 1.71±0.17abce,LH 0.98±0.10ad,L 
    d-β-HBDH 2.28±0.28de,L 2.21±0.12de,LH 1.90±0.09de,LH 0.04±0.02abce,LH 0.92±0.12abcd 
    PK 81.1±4.3bcde,L 54.9±1.3ae,LH 55.6±1.9ae,LH 58.4±1.4ae,LH 27.0±2.7abcd,LH 
    GDH 13.7±1.4de,LK 9.62±1.04de,L 12.6±0.8de,LH,* 53.4±3.3abce,LH 26.5±2.7abcd,LH 
Heart      
    CCO 12.3±0.7 (4)de,L 12.9±2.0 (5)de,L 14.4±1.4 (5)de,L 5.87±0.95 (4)abce 39.9±2.7abcd,LK 
    CPT 0.033±0.010bcd,LK 0.072±0.003ae,LK 0.088±0.014ae,L 0.085±0.008ae,LK 0.010±0.004bcd,LK 
    COT 0.060±0.017bc,L,† 0.199±0.016ade,L,† 0.182±0.016ade,L,† 0.060±0.019bc,LK 0.066±0.019bc,LK,† 
    HOAD 0.37±0.03 (5)bcde,L 0.72±0.07ae,L 0.70±0.08ae,L 0.78±0.09ae,LK 1.23±0.10abcd,L 
    d-β-HBDH 3.82±0.20 (5)bce 10.9±0.6ade,LK 9.50±0.90ade,K 2.48±0.43bc,LK 0.87±0.24abc,L 
    PK 83.9±5.7 (5)L 77.5±4.1LK 85.0±7.4LK 104.1±4.7LK 84.0±16.4LK 
    GDH 2.66±0.21 (5)b,LH 4.60±0.32a,L 4.19±0.30LK 3.31±0.67K 4.24±0.30LK 

FW, freshwater; SW, sea water; ½ SW, half-strength (15‰)seawater.

Values are mean ± s.e.m.; N=6 except where noted in parentheses.

Activities were measured at 25°C. ND, not detectable. See List of abbreviations for enzyme names.

Activities are expressed as μmol min-1 g-1 wet mass. Lowercase letters in superscript indicate a significant difference(one-way ANOVA, P<0.05) from the same enzyme in the same tissue: aP. motoro, bH. signifer (FW), cH. signifer (½ SW), dT. lymma, eC. punctatum. Uppercase letters in superscript indicate a significant difference (one-way ANOVA, P<0.05) from the same enzyme activity in the same species in: Lliver, Kkidney, Hheart; *significant difference between H. signifer (FW)and H. signifer (1/2SW) (Student's t-test, P<0.05); COT activity is significantly different from CPT activity within the same tissue (Student's t-test, P<0.05). ND activities were omitted from statistical tests.

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