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Table 1.

Kinematic parameters calculated for trout fast-starts

VariableLow strainHigh strainTest
Anterior strain measured from sonomicrometry (%) 10.3±3.4 (4.6–13.4) 15.1±4.8 (6.7–20.6) P<0.05 
Posterior strain measured from sonomicrometry (%) 8.8±3.0 (5.3–15.7) 19.0±6.0 (13.4–31.1) P<0.005 
Anterior strain predicted from beam theory (%) 10.8±1.0 (9.7–12.8) 11.2±1.1 (10.1–13.1) P=0.287 
Posterior strain predicted from beam theory (%) 10.2±2.5 (5.3–15.7) 12.4±2.7 (13.4–31.1) P=0.149 
Anterior measured strain – anterior predicted strain (%) -0.5±3.1 (-6.1–2.8) 3.9±5.0 (-4.6–9.4) P=0.575 
Posterior measured strain – posterior predicted strain (%) -1.5±3.9 (-8.5–5.6) 6.6±6.6 (1.2–20.0) P<0.005 
Anterior phase shift (s) 0.007±0.006 (0–0.016) 0.006±0.005 (0–0.012) P=0.784 
Posterior phase shift (s) 0.005±0.005 (0–0.012) 0.021±0.009 (0.008–0.040) P<0.005 
Strain wave velocity (L s-111.2±1.6 (9.4–15.0) 30.9±25.61 (10.7–75.0) P<0.005 
Curvature wave velocity (L s-111.7±4.3 (6.3–18.8) 15.9±8.4 (4.7–25.0) P=0.358 
VariableLow strainHigh strainTest
Anterior strain measured from sonomicrometry (%) 10.3±3.4 (4.6–13.4) 15.1±4.8 (6.7–20.6) P<0.05 
Posterior strain measured from sonomicrometry (%) 8.8±3.0 (5.3–15.7) 19.0±6.0 (13.4–31.1) P<0.005 
Anterior strain predicted from beam theory (%) 10.8±1.0 (9.7–12.8) 11.2±1.1 (10.1–13.1) P=0.287 
Posterior strain predicted from beam theory (%) 10.2±2.5 (5.3–15.7) 12.4±2.7 (13.4–31.1) P=0.149 
Anterior measured strain – anterior predicted strain (%) -0.5±3.1 (-6.1–2.8) 3.9±5.0 (-4.6–9.4) P=0.575 
Posterior measured strain – posterior predicted strain (%) -1.5±3.9 (-8.5–5.6) 6.6±6.6 (1.2–20.0) P<0.005 
Anterior phase shift (s) 0.007±0.006 (0–0.016) 0.006±0.005 (0–0.012) P=0.784 
Posterior phase shift (s) 0.005±0.005 (0–0.012) 0.021±0.009 (0.008–0.040) P<0.005 
Strain wave velocity (L s-111.2±1.6 (9.4–15.0) 30.9±25.61 (10.7–75.0) P<0.005 
Curvature wave velocity (L s-111.7±4.3 (6.3–18.8) 15.9±8.4 (4.7–25.0) P=0.358 

Kinematic parameters calculated during induced fast-starts (20 trials, six individuals). Escape responses are categorized into high strain (>12.3%;nine trials, four individuals) and low strain (<12.3%; 11 trials, four individuals) events. Strain values correspond to peak strains experienced during the maneuver. Phase shift describes the time change that maximizes synchrony between measured and predicted strain profiles. Strain wave and curvature wave velocities were calculated by dividing the distance between the two sample sites by the time between the associated wave maxima/minima.

Values are means ±s.d. and ranges are included in parentheses. All statistical tests were Mann-Whitney U-tests to determine whether each parameter was not equal between high strain and low strain events.

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