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Table 1.

Comparison of the mean rate of CO2 emission from the mesothoracic spiracles and elytral case in four species of dung beetles

SpeciesP. femoralisS. gariepinusS. striatumC. bacchus*
N 
Mass (g) 5.117±0.62a 1.716±0.35b 0.742±0.20b 7.427±1.86c 
Rate of CO2 emission (μl h-1    
   Mesothoracic spiracles 35.53±28.7a 24.88±19.2a 27.68±19.7a 258.2±118.2b 
   Posterior spiracles 468.39±97.13a 121.45±75.3b 28.56±11.0b 119.5±123.6b 
Ratio of CO2 emission     
   Mesothoracic:elytral case 0.083±0.07 0.31±0.3 1.56±2.1 3.47±2.0 
 (range 0.019–0.22) (0.11–1.06) (0.22–5.9) (0.42–6.81) 
% total CO2 emitted through mesothoracic spiracles 7.31±6.5 20.07±15.05 46.23±22.9 79.4±4.48 
Frequency (mHz) 0.73±0.3a 0.33±0.2b 0.42±0.2b 0.26±0.05b 
DGC cycles per hour 2.6±1.1a 1.2±0.6b 1.5±0.8b 0.94±0.2b 
Total rate of CO2 emission     
   (μl h-1503.92±87.5a 146.03±87.2b 56.24±11.5b 377.74±138.7c 
   (μl h-1 g-198.66±13.2a 80.53±39.6a,b 80.19±25.4a,b 51.52±18.12b 
SpeciesP. femoralisS. gariepinusS. striatumC. bacchus*
N 
Mass (g) 5.117±0.62a 1.716±0.35b 0.742±0.20b 7.427±1.86c 
Rate of CO2 emission (μl h-1    
   Mesothoracic spiracles 35.53±28.7a 24.88±19.2a 27.68±19.7a 258.2±118.2b 
   Posterior spiracles 468.39±97.13a 121.45±75.3b 28.56±11.0b 119.5±123.6b 
Ratio of CO2 emission     
   Mesothoracic:elytral case 0.083±0.07 0.31±0.3 1.56±2.1 3.47±2.0 
 (range 0.019–0.22) (0.11–1.06) (0.22–5.9) (0.42–6.81) 
% total CO2 emitted through mesothoracic spiracles 7.31±6.5 20.07±15.05 46.23±22.9 79.4±4.48 
Frequency (mHz) 0.73±0.3a 0.33±0.2b 0.42±0.2b 0.26±0.05b 
DGC cycles per hour 2.6±1.1a 1.2±0.6b 1.5±0.8b 0.94±0.2b 
Total rate of CO2 emission     
   (μl h-1503.92±87.5a 146.03±87.2b 56.24±11.5b 377.74±138.7c 
   (μl h-1 g-198.66±13.2a 80.53±39.6a,b 80.19±25.4a,b 51.52±18.12b 

Comparison of the mean rate of CO2 emission from the mesothoracic spiracles and elytral case in four species of dung beetles (mean± s.d.). N, number beetles measured. Means in the same row, followed by the same letter are not significantly different(P<0.05; ANOVA with LSD range test). *From Duncan and Byrne (2002).

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