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Table 1.

Strain during the phases identified by the kinematics of the joint

Triceps
PhaseAverage strain (s.e.m.)Effect of speed (P)Difference from level (P)
5.2% (0.7) Increased (0.028) Not different (0.129) 
−1.4% (0.2) Decreased (0.012) Not different (0.194) 
−18% (0.7) Not different (0.408) Increased (0.026) 
 % Stance   
25 Increased (0.0001) Not different (0.787) 
34 Increased (0.0001) Not different (0.188) 
83 Increased (0.038) Not different (0.595) 
Vastus    
Phase Average strain (s.e.m.) Effect of speed (PDifference from level (P
−6.4% (0.7) Not different (0.900) Not different (0.209) 
0.6% (0.2) Not different (0.448) Not different (0.210) 
−3.6% (0.4) Not different (0.525) Not different (0.525) 
−5.4% (0.5) Not different (0.376) Not different (0.062) 
−9.7% (0.7) Not different (0.135) Decreased (0.003) 
 % Stance   
14 Not different (0.557) Decreased (0.046) 
17 Increased (0.005) Decreased (0.004) 
31 Increased (0.001) Decreased (0.011) 
59 Increased (0.001) Not different (0.101) 
88 Not different (0.810) Increased (0.004) 
Triceps
PhaseAverage strain (s.e.m.)Effect of speed (P)Difference from level (P)
5.2% (0.7) Increased (0.028) Not different (0.129) 
−1.4% (0.2) Decreased (0.012) Not different (0.194) 
−18% (0.7) Not different (0.408) Increased (0.026) 
 % Stance   
25 Increased (0.0001) Not different (0.787) 
34 Increased (0.0001) Not different (0.188) 
83 Increased (0.038) Not different (0.595) 
Vastus    
Phase Average strain (s.e.m.) Effect of speed (PDifference from level (P
−6.4% (0.7) Not different (0.900) Not different (0.209) 
0.6% (0.2) Not different (0.448) Not different (0.210) 
−3.6% (0.4) Not different (0.525) Not different (0.525) 
−5.4% (0.5) Not different (0.376) Not different (0.062) 
−9.7% (0.7) Not different (0.135) Decreased (0.003) 
 % Stance   
14 Not different (0.557) Decreased (0.046) 
17 Increased (0.005) Decreased (0.004) 
31 Increased (0.001) Decreased (0.011) 
59 Increased (0.001) Not different (0.101) 
88 Not different (0.810) Increased (0.004) 

Strain, percent of normalized muscle length; negative strain values indicate shortening.

Percent stance indicates the time when the phase ended.

Values are averages of the triceps and vastus for all four horses at all nine speeds on the incline.

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