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Table 1.

Typical RER values and conventionally assumed thermal equivalents of gas exchanges for major classes of metabolic substrates

Lipid*Carbohydrate*Protein (mammals)*Protein (birds)†
RER 0.71 1.00 0.81 0.74 
hCO2 (kJ l−127.8 21.1 23.8 25.4 
hO2 (kJ l−119.8 21.1 19.2 18.7 
Lipid*Carbohydrate*Protein (mammals)*Protein (birds)†
RER 0.71 1.00 0.81 0.74 
hCO2 (kJ l−127.8 21.1 23.8 25.4 
hO2 (kJ l−119.8 21.1 19.2 18.7 

Values taken from *Brouwer(1957); †King(1957).

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