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Table 2.

Timing and magnitudes of hindlimb force patterns for high walking alligators

VariableMean ± s.d.
Maximum vertical force 0.532±0.027 
Time to maximum vertical force 35.8±2.4 
Maximum braking force 0.054±0.018 
Time to maximum braking force 6.0±0.7 
Time to braking-to-propulsive transition 15.4±0.9 
Maximum propulsive force* −0.059±0.125 
Time to maximum propulsive force 64.4±5.4 
Maximum lateral force** −0.106±0.011 
Time to maximum lateral force 19.1±1.4 
VariableMean ± s.d.
Maximum vertical force 0.532±0.027 
Time to maximum vertical force 35.8±2.4 
Maximum braking force 0.054±0.018 
Time to maximum braking force 6.0±0.7 
Time to braking-to-propulsive transition 15.4±0.9 
Maximum propulsive force* −0.059±0.125 
Time to maximum propulsive force 64.4±5.4 
Maximum lateral force** −0.106±0.011 
Time to maximum lateral force 19.1±1.4 

Forces are in body weight units and times are in percentage of stance duration.

Data are from 20 three-dimensional hindlimb force records pooled across four individuals (N per individual=3, 5, 5, 7) averaging 0.148 m s−1 (range 0.110-0.167 m s−1) to match the speed of kinematic and gait data (average 0.146 m s−1) as closely as possible.

*

Negative force-aft values are accelerative forces.

**

Negative mediolateral values are lateral forces.

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