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Appendix A.

Data for the 15 species of birds studied by Hedenström and Alerstam (1992 ) as the birds performed steep climbing flights when migrating over Sweden

SpeciesMh (% Mb)Mfm (% Mb)Sustainable Pmet,fm (W)Pac (W) aPac (W) b
Mute swan Cygnus olor 1.13 21.8 649 274 243 
Greylag goose Anser anser 0.92 27.1 206 80 74 
Eider Somateria mollissima 1.1 25.5 132 55 51 
Red-throated diver Gavia stellata 0.92 16.0 87.7 34 29 
Brent goose Branta bernicla 1.07 24.7 101 32 28 
Curlew Numenius arquata 1.22 25.8 70.2 23 24 
Wigeon Anas penelope 0.93 26.2 50.1 26 25 
Wood pigeon Columba palumbus 1.37 35.8 55.5 14 15 
Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus 1.16 22.3 46.8 13 12 
Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea 1.24 22.8 13.5 2.5 2.4 
Song thrush Turdus philomelos 1.06 31.1 6.76 2.0 2.1 
Dunlin Calidris alpina 1.52 26.3 7.4 1.8 1.8 
Swift Apus apus 1.5 26.6 6.09 0.83 0.76 
Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs 1.52 32.0 3.57 0.6 0.63 
Siskin Carduelis spinus 1.94 28.6 2.5 0.4 0.42 
SpeciesMh (% Mb)Mfm (% Mb)Sustainable Pmet,fm (W)Pac (W) aPac (W) b
Mute swan Cygnus olor 1.13 21.8 649 274 243 
Greylag goose Anser anser 0.92 27.1 206 80 74 
Eider Somateria mollissima 1.1 25.5 132 55 51 
Red-throated diver Gavia stellata 0.92 16.0 87.7 34 29 
Brent goose Branta bernicla 1.07 24.7 101 32 28 
Curlew Numenius arquata 1.22 25.8 70.2 23 24 
Wigeon Anas penelope 0.93 26.2 50.1 26 25 
Wood pigeon Columba palumbus 1.37 35.8 55.5 14 15 
Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus 1.16 22.3 46.8 13 12 
Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea 1.24 22.8 13.5 2.5 2.4 
Song thrush Turdus philomelos 1.06 31.1 6.76 2.0 2.1 
Dunlin Calidris alpina 1.52 26.3 7.4 1.8 1.8 
Swift Apus apus 1.5 26.6 6.09 0.83 0.76 
Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs 1.52 32.0 3.57 0.6 0.63 
Siskin Carduelis spinus 1.94 28.6 2.5 0.4 0.42 
a

Hedenstrom and Alerstam(1992).

b

This study, based on Pennycuick(1989, v1.1).

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