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Table 2.

CO2 emission volumes, period durations, emission rates,total CO2 emission rates and masses for each of the species investigated in this study

MeanStandard deviationN
Archaeognatha    
    Meinertellidae sp.(Fig. 2A)    
        Mass (mg) 12.75 5.18 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-14.036×10-3 0.713×10-3 
Zygentoma    
    Lepismatidae sp. 1(Fig. 2B)    
        Mass (mg) 23.04 1.99 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-13.89×10-3 0.884×10-3 
        Frequency (mHz) 3.701×103 0.521×103 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.179 0.078 
            Duration(s) 218.43 45.87 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.046 0.012 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.222 0.073 
            Duration(s) 106.60 9.050 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.120 0.032 
    Lepismatidae sp. 2(Fig. 2C)    
        Mass (mg) 17.18 0.72 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-14.450×10-3 1.130×10-3 
        Frequency (Hz) 5.140 1.240 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.143 0.070 
            Duration(s) 172.0 35.84 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.052 0.017 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.166 0.041 
            Duration(s) 108.74 13.34 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.102 0.026 
Lepismatidae    
    Ctenolepisma longicaudata(Fig. 2D)    
        Mass (mg) 26.64 5.46 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-12.430×10-3 0.492×10-3 
        Frequency (mHz) 5.627 3.501 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.046 0.032 
            Duration(s) 90.86 63.73 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.034 0.040 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.137 0.068 
            Duration(s) 129.71 30.30 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.063 0.021 
Ephemeroptera    
    Heptageniidae sp.(Fig. 2E)    
        Mass (mg) 5.61 5.98 12 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-11.425×10-3 1.143×10-3 12 
Odonata    
    Coenagrionidae    
        Ischnura senegalensis(Fig. 2F)    
        Mass (mg) 21.16 4.58 10 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-11.265×10-2 0.658×10-2 10 
        Frequency (mHz) 0.629 0.331 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 3.309 2.881 
            Duration(s) 1160.84 908.49 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.302 0.422 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 1.215 1.106 
            Duration(s) 218.83 104.455 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.291 0.157 
Libellulidae    
    Trithemis arteriosa(Fig. 2G)    
        Mass (mg) 103.06 37.88 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-13.400×10-2 0.828×10-2 
        Frequency (mHz) 4.969  
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.702  
            Duration(s) 80.0  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.495  
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 2.344  
            Duration(s) 205.0  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.690  
Blattodea    
    Blaberidae sp.(Fig. 2H)    
        Mass (mg) 2.54×103 0.94×103 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-19.100×10-2 0.004×10-2 
        DGC    
            Frequency(mHz) 1.579  
        C-period    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.306  
            Duration(s) 144.5  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.130  
        F-period    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.800  
            Duration(s) 152.40  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.336  
        O-period    
            Emission volume (μl) 11.71  
            Duration(s) 261.5  
            Emission rate (μl min-12.686  
        Interburst—burst pattern    
            Frequency(mHz) 5.319 6.081 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 1.237 1.579 
            Duration(s) 113.86 71.01 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.530 0.578 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 14.55 12.82 
            Duration(s) 340.86 358.38 
            Emission rate (μl min-12.733 1.705 
Mantodea    
    Mantidae    
        Sphodromantis gastrica (Fig. 2I)    
        Mass (mg) 335.7 276.7 
        Sphodromantis gastrica (continued   
        CO2(ml CO2 h-16.440×10-2 0.005×10-2 
        Frequency (mHz) 5.648 2.519 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.451 0.810 
            Duration(s) 66.65 82.31 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.531 0.886 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 3.683 4.027 
            Duration(s) 214.35 119.81 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.806 0.515 
Mantophasmatodea    
    Austrophasmatidae    
        Karoophasma biedouwensis (Fig. 2J)    
        Mass (mg) 98.62 83.50 14 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-12.396×10-2 1.487×10-2 14 
        Frequency (mHz) 3.450 1.01 14 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.416 0.239 11 
            Duration(s) 120 69 11 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.216 0.010 11 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 1.254 0.566 11 
            Duration(s) 192 63 11 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.394 0.144 11 
Phasmatodea    
    Phamatidae    
        Extatosoma tiaratum(Fig. 2K)    
        Mass (mg) 0.59×103 0.42×103 10 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-10.218×10-3 0.066×10-3 10 
        Frequency (mHz) 7.650 0.022 10 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 9.59  
            Duration(s) 39.75  
            Emission rate (μl min-11.41  
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 13.95  
            Duration(s) 80.75  
            Emission rate (μl min-11.14  
Orthoptera    
    Pneumoridae    
        Bullacris intermedia(Fig. 2M)    
        Mass (mg) 1.69×103 1.19×103 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-10.297 0.135 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 17.71  
            Duration(s) 160.5  
            Emission rate (μl min-16.643  
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 1.40  
            Duration(s) 90.75  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.926  
Dermaptera    
    Labiduridae    
        Euborellia annulipes(Fig. 2N)    
        Mass (mg) 31.76 26.50 12 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-18.727×10-3 8.004×10-3 12 
        Frequency (mHz) 1.044×103  
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 1.398 0.974 
            Duration(s) 533.88 341.90 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.172 0.131 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.621 0.571 
            Duration(s) 306.50 136.13 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.107 0.065 
Hemiptera    
    Coreidae sp.(Fig. 2O)    
        Mass (mg) 556.1 63.64 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-10.164 0.073 
        Frequency (mHz) 4.208 2.048 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 2.88 3.137 
            Duration(s) 134.15 120.44 
            Emission rate (μl min-11.486 0.691 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 12.03 2.164 
            Duration(s) 172.92 39.28 
            Emission rate (μl min-14.233 0.522 
    Lygaeidae sp.(Fig. 2P)    
        Mass (mg) 19.66 3.94 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-11.103×10-2 1.873×10-2 
Trichoptera    
    Leptoceridae    
        Leptocerina sp.(Fig. 2S)    
        Mass (mg) 5.20  
        CO2(ml CO2 h-13.532×10-3  
        Frequency (mHz) 10.21  
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.054  
            Duration(s) 51.5  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.045  
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.141  
            Duration(s) 83.5  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.085  
Lepidoptera    
    Plutellidae    
        Plutella xylostella(Fig. 2T)    
        Mass (mg) 3.52 0.93 13 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-13.751×10-3 0.578×10-3 13 
MeanStandard deviationN
Archaeognatha    
    Meinertellidae sp.(Fig. 2A)    
        Mass (mg) 12.75 5.18 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-14.036×10-3 0.713×10-3 
Zygentoma    
    Lepismatidae sp. 1(Fig. 2B)    
        Mass (mg) 23.04 1.99 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-13.89×10-3 0.884×10-3 
        Frequency (mHz) 3.701×103 0.521×103 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.179 0.078 
            Duration(s) 218.43 45.87 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.046 0.012 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.222 0.073 
            Duration(s) 106.60 9.050 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.120 0.032 
    Lepismatidae sp. 2(Fig. 2C)    
        Mass (mg) 17.18 0.72 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-14.450×10-3 1.130×10-3 
        Frequency (Hz) 5.140 1.240 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.143 0.070 
            Duration(s) 172.0 35.84 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.052 0.017 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.166 0.041 
            Duration(s) 108.74 13.34 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.102 0.026 
Lepismatidae    
    Ctenolepisma longicaudata(Fig. 2D)    
        Mass (mg) 26.64 5.46 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-12.430×10-3 0.492×10-3 
        Frequency (mHz) 5.627 3.501 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.046 0.032 
            Duration(s) 90.86 63.73 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.034 0.040 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.137 0.068 
            Duration(s) 129.71 30.30 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.063 0.021 
Ephemeroptera    
    Heptageniidae sp.(Fig. 2E)    
        Mass (mg) 5.61 5.98 12 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-11.425×10-3 1.143×10-3 12 
Odonata    
    Coenagrionidae    
        Ischnura senegalensis(Fig. 2F)    
        Mass (mg) 21.16 4.58 10 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-11.265×10-2 0.658×10-2 10 
        Frequency (mHz) 0.629 0.331 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 3.309 2.881 
            Duration(s) 1160.84 908.49 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.302 0.422 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 1.215 1.106 
            Duration(s) 218.83 104.455 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.291 0.157 
Libellulidae    
    Trithemis arteriosa(Fig. 2G)    
        Mass (mg) 103.06 37.88 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-13.400×10-2 0.828×10-2 
        Frequency (mHz) 4.969  
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.702  
            Duration(s) 80.0  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.495  
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 2.344  
            Duration(s) 205.0  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.690  
Blattodea    
    Blaberidae sp.(Fig. 2H)    
        Mass (mg) 2.54×103 0.94×103 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-19.100×10-2 0.004×10-2 
        DGC    
            Frequency(mHz) 1.579  
        C-period    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.306  
            Duration(s) 144.5  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.130  
        F-period    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.800  
            Duration(s) 152.40  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.336  
        O-period    
            Emission volume (μl) 11.71  
            Duration(s) 261.5  
            Emission rate (μl min-12.686  
        Interburst—burst pattern    
            Frequency(mHz) 5.319 6.081 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 1.237 1.579 
            Duration(s) 113.86 71.01 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.530 0.578 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 14.55 12.82 
            Duration(s) 340.86 358.38 
            Emission rate (μl min-12.733 1.705 
Mantodea    
    Mantidae    
        Sphodromantis gastrica (Fig. 2I)    
        Mass (mg) 335.7 276.7 
        Sphodromantis gastrica (continued   
        CO2(ml CO2 h-16.440×10-2 0.005×10-2 
        Frequency (mHz) 5.648 2.519 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.451 0.810 
            Duration(s) 66.65 82.31 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.531 0.886 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 3.683 4.027 
            Duration(s) 214.35 119.81 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.806 0.515 
Mantophasmatodea    
    Austrophasmatidae    
        Karoophasma biedouwensis (Fig. 2J)    
        Mass (mg) 98.62 83.50 14 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-12.396×10-2 1.487×10-2 14 
        Frequency (mHz) 3.450 1.01 14 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.416 0.239 11 
            Duration(s) 120 69 11 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.216 0.010 11 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 1.254 0.566 11 
            Duration(s) 192 63 11 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.394 0.144 11 
Phasmatodea    
    Phamatidae    
        Extatosoma tiaratum(Fig. 2K)    
        Mass (mg) 0.59×103 0.42×103 10 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-10.218×10-3 0.066×10-3 10 
        Frequency (mHz) 7.650 0.022 10 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 9.59  
            Duration(s) 39.75  
            Emission rate (μl min-11.41  
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 13.95  
            Duration(s) 80.75  
            Emission rate (μl min-11.14  
Orthoptera    
    Pneumoridae    
        Bullacris intermedia(Fig. 2M)    
        Mass (mg) 1.69×103 1.19×103 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-10.297 0.135 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 17.71  
            Duration(s) 160.5  
            Emission rate (μl min-16.643  
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 1.40  
            Duration(s) 90.75  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.926  
Dermaptera    
    Labiduridae    
        Euborellia annulipes(Fig. 2N)    
        Mass (mg) 31.76 26.50 12 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-18.727×10-3 8.004×10-3 12 
        Frequency (mHz) 1.044×103  
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 1.398 0.974 
            Duration(s) 533.88 341.90 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.172 0.131 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.621 0.571 
            Duration(s) 306.50 136.13 
            Emission rate (μl min-10.107 0.065 
Hemiptera    
    Coreidae sp.(Fig. 2O)    
        Mass (mg) 556.1 63.64 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-10.164 0.073 
        Frequency (mHz) 4.208 2.048 
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 2.88 3.137 
            Duration(s) 134.15 120.44 
            Emission rate (μl min-11.486 0.691 
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 12.03 2.164 
            Duration(s) 172.92 39.28 
            Emission rate (μl min-14.233 0.522 
    Lygaeidae sp.(Fig. 2P)    
        Mass (mg) 19.66 3.94 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-11.103×10-2 1.873×10-2 
Trichoptera    
    Leptoceridae    
        Leptocerina sp.(Fig. 2S)    
        Mass (mg) 5.20  
        CO2(ml CO2 h-13.532×10-3  
        Frequency (mHz) 10.21  
        Interburst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.054  
            Duration(s) 51.5  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.045  
        Burst    
            Emission volume (μl) 0.141  
            Duration(s) 83.5  
            Emission rate (μl min-10.085  
Lepidoptera    
    Plutellidae    
        Plutella xylostella(Fig. 2T)    
        Mass (mg) 3.52 0.93 13 
        CO2(ml CO2 h-13.751×10-3 0.578×10-3 13 

Note that differences in sample size between mass data and frequency data provide an indication of the frequency of cyclic or DGC patterns relative to continuous gas exchange, thus providing a measure of within-species variation. CO2, rate of CO2 production.

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