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Table 1.

Species examined for gas exchange patterns in this study

LocalityResponse time, lag time (s)
Archaeognatha   
    Meinertellidae, sp. Helderberg Nature Reserve, Somerset West, South Africa (34°02.579′S,18°52.472′E) 6, 120 
Zygentoma   
    Lepismatidae   
        Lepismatidae sp. 1 Sutherland, South Africa (32°34.105′S, 20°57.747′E) 6, 120 
        Lepismatidae sp. 2 Cederberg, South Africa (31°51.611′S, 18°55.122′E) 6, 120 
        Ctenolepisma longicaudata (Echerich, 1905) Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°55.923′S, 18°51.812′E) 6, 120 
Ephemeroptera   
    Heptageniidae sp. Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°55.923′S, 18°51.812′E) 9, 210 
Odonata   
    Coenagrionidae   
        Ischnura senegalensis(Rambur, 1842) Jonkershoek, Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°57.814′S,18°55.514′E) 7, 130 
    Libellulidae   
        Trithemis arteriosa(Burmeister, 1839) Jonkershoek, Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°57.814′S,18°55.514′E) 18, 270 
Blattodea   
    Blaberidae, sp. Cederberg, South Africa (31°51.611′S, 18°55.122′E) 4, 90 
Mantodea   
    Mantidae   
        Sphodromantis gastrica Stål Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°55.923′S, 18°51.812′E) 7, 130 
Mantophasmatodea   
    Austrophasmatidae   
        Karoophasma biedouwensis (Klass et al., 2003) Cederberg, South Africa (32°05′S, 19°15′E) 9, 210 
Phasmatodea   
    Phasmatidae   
        Extatosoma tiaratum(Macleay, 1826) Butterfly World, Klapmuts, South Africa, but originally from Australia 7, 130 
Orthoptera   
    Pneumoridae   
        Bullacris intermedia(Péringuey, 1916) Zuurberg, South Africa (33°48′S, 25°14′E) 7, 130 
Dermpatera   
    Labiduridae   
        Euborellia annulipes(Lucas, 1847) Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°55.923′S, 18°51.812′E) 6, 120 
Hemiptera   
    Coreidae sp. Nigel, South Africa (26°25.422′S, 28°28.349′E) 6, 120 
    Lygaeidae sp. Somerset West, South Africa (34°03.806′S, 18°49.473′E) 6, 120 
Neuroptera   
    Chrysopidae   
        Chrysoperla sp. Somerset West, South Africa (34°03.806′S, 18°49.473′E) 9, 210 
Diptera   
    Glossinidae   
        Glossina morsitansWestwood FAO/IAEA, Vienna, Austria (Laboratory colony) 6, 120 
Trichoptera   
    Leptoceridae   
        Leptocerina sp. Olifants River, Citrusdal (32°35′S, 18°40′E) 9, 210 
Lepidoptera   
    Plutellidae   
        Plutella xylostella(Linnaeus, 1758) Somerset West, South Africa (34°03.806′S, 18°49.473′E) 9, 210 
LocalityResponse time, lag time (s)
Archaeognatha   
    Meinertellidae, sp. Helderberg Nature Reserve, Somerset West, South Africa (34°02.579′S,18°52.472′E) 6, 120 
Zygentoma   
    Lepismatidae   
        Lepismatidae sp. 1 Sutherland, South Africa (32°34.105′S, 20°57.747′E) 6, 120 
        Lepismatidae sp. 2 Cederberg, South Africa (31°51.611′S, 18°55.122′E) 6, 120 
        Ctenolepisma longicaudata (Echerich, 1905) Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°55.923′S, 18°51.812′E) 6, 120 
Ephemeroptera   
    Heptageniidae sp. Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°55.923′S, 18°51.812′E) 9, 210 
Odonata   
    Coenagrionidae   
        Ischnura senegalensis(Rambur, 1842) Jonkershoek, Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°57.814′S,18°55.514′E) 7, 130 
    Libellulidae   
        Trithemis arteriosa(Burmeister, 1839) Jonkershoek, Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°57.814′S,18°55.514′E) 18, 270 
Blattodea   
    Blaberidae, sp. Cederberg, South Africa (31°51.611′S, 18°55.122′E) 4, 90 
Mantodea   
    Mantidae   
        Sphodromantis gastrica Stål Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°55.923′S, 18°51.812′E) 7, 130 
Mantophasmatodea   
    Austrophasmatidae   
        Karoophasma biedouwensis (Klass et al., 2003) Cederberg, South Africa (32°05′S, 19°15′E) 9, 210 
Phasmatodea   
    Phasmatidae   
        Extatosoma tiaratum(Macleay, 1826) Butterfly World, Klapmuts, South Africa, but originally from Australia 7, 130 
Orthoptera   
    Pneumoridae   
        Bullacris intermedia(Péringuey, 1916) Zuurberg, South Africa (33°48′S, 25°14′E) 7, 130 
Dermpatera   
    Labiduridae   
        Euborellia annulipes(Lucas, 1847) Stellenbosch, South Africa (33°55.923′S, 18°51.812′E) 6, 120 
Hemiptera   
    Coreidae sp. Nigel, South Africa (26°25.422′S, 28°28.349′E) 6, 120 
    Lygaeidae sp. Somerset West, South Africa (34°03.806′S, 18°49.473′E) 6, 120 
Neuroptera   
    Chrysopidae   
        Chrysoperla sp. Somerset West, South Africa (34°03.806′S, 18°49.473′E) 9, 210 
Diptera   
    Glossinidae   
        Glossina morsitansWestwood FAO/IAEA, Vienna, Austria (Laboratory colony) 6, 120 
Trichoptera   
    Leptoceridae   
        Leptocerina sp. Olifants River, Citrusdal (32°35′S, 18°40′E) 9, 210 
Lepidoptera   
    Plutellidae   
        Plutella xylostella(Linnaeus, 1758) Somerset West, South Africa (34°03.806′S, 18°49.473′E) 9, 210 

Localities are provided, and species names where these are available. However, the taxonomic impediment in South Africa means that the latter has not always been possible. Response and lag times refer to delay in first detection of CO2, and time to zero baseline, respectively, of each of the designs used to examine gas exchange patterns. With one exception these times are well within those calculated from designs typically described in the literature for gas exchange analyses in insects.

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