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Table 2.

Estimates of time for replacement of haemolymph ion content by transport across the anal papillae

Ion transportedPapillae ion flux per larva
Time to complete ion haemolymph replacement (h)
(pmol larva-1 s-1)(nmol mg-1 h-1)
Influx    
Na+ 16.1 22.3 2.4 
Cl- 7.6 10.5 4.0 
K+ 3.4 4.6 3.3 
Efflux    
NH4+ 5.1 7.2 NA 
H+ 5.2 7.2 NA 
Ion transportedPapillae ion flux per larva
Time to complete ion haemolymph replacement (h)
(pmol larva-1 s-1)(nmol mg-1 h-1)
Influx    
Na+ 16.1 22.3 2.4 
Cl- 7.6 10.5 4.0 
K+ 3.4 4.6 3.3 
Efflux    
NH4+ 5.1 7.2 NA 
H+ 5.2 7.2 NA 

The surface area of the papilla (1.27×10-2 cm2)and the mean ion fluxes across all four regions of the papilla(Fig. 3) were used to estimate the ion flux resulting from all four papillae in a single larva. For comparisons with Stobbart(1965, 1967) flux was converted to nmol mg-1 h-1, based on a larval mass of 2.66 mg. The values were subsequently used to estimate the time to replace the total ion content of the haemolymph, based on a mean larval haemolymph volume of 1.65μ1. These values are single calculations using an average papilla surface area, therefore no variation is associated with the values.

NA, not applicable.

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