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Table 1.

Summary of results from experiments in which foraging reward rate was manipulated (without altering the predictability) in a closed economy system

Reward rateForaging activityMassNon-foraging activityBMR or RMRDaily food intakeDEE
Starling Variable −   
Sturnus vulgaris1        
Starling Variable −  − 
Sturnus vulgaris2        
Zebra finch Variable   0* 0* 
Taeniopygia guttata3        
Zebra finch Variable − − − 
Taeniopygia guttata (this study)        
Starling Fixed − −  −  
Sturnus vulgaris1        
Starling Fixed −  − − − 
Sturnus vulgaris4        
Zebra finch Fixed − (−) − − − 
Taeniopygia guttata5        
Steely-vented hummingbird Fixed  − ** − − 
Amazilia saucerottei6        
Fork-tailed emerald Fixed  − ** − − 
Chlorostilbon canivetii6        
Domestic pigeon Fixed −  *** −  
Columba livia7        
House mouse Fixed −  −  
Mus domesticus8        
Deer mouse Fixed −  −  
Peromyscus maniculatus8        
Siberian hamster Fixed −   −  
Phodopus sungorus9        
Reward rateForaging activityMassNon-foraging activityBMR or RMRDaily food intakeDEE
Starling Variable −   
Sturnus vulgaris1        
Starling Variable −  − 
Sturnus vulgaris2        
Zebra finch Variable   0* 0* 
Taeniopygia guttata3        
Zebra finch Variable − − − 
Taeniopygia guttata (this study)        
Starling Fixed − −  −  
Sturnus vulgaris1        
Starling Fixed −  − − − 
Sturnus vulgaris4        
Zebra finch Fixed − (−) − − − 
Taeniopygia guttata5        
Steely-vented hummingbird Fixed  − ** − − 
Amazilia saucerottei6        
Fork-tailed emerald Fixed  − ** − − 
Chlorostilbon canivetii6        
Domestic pigeon Fixed −  *** −  
Columba livia7        
House mouse Fixed −  −  
Mus domesticus8        
Deer mouse Fixed −  −  
Peromyscus maniculatus8        
Siberian hamster Fixed −   −  
Phodopus sungorus9        

The responses to a decrease in foraging reward rate are shown. Reward rates could either be fixed (without variation) or variable (only mean fixed). +,increases; −, decreases; 0, no change; indicators in parentheses refer to trends (P<0.1).

*But note the quantitative agreement with our result of a negative effect in Fig. 2; **perching MR (not directly measured); ***inferred from body temperature.

1Fotheringham(1998), 2Wiersma et al. (2005), 3Lemon and Barth (1992), 4Bautista et al.(1998), 5Deerenberg et al. (1998), 6Tiebout (1991), 7Rashotte and Henderson(1988), 8Perrigo(1987), 9Day and Bartness (2001).

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