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Table 2.

Statistical significance of observed differences among means for pectoralis data in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) flying in different modes in a wind tunnel (N=7) and across different velocities in a wind tunnel (N=5)

VariableFlight mode (d.f.=6,2) P-valueFlight velocity (d.f.=4,6) P-value
Strain rate (L s-10.0013 <0.0001 
Strain (ΔL/Lrest0.0007 <0.0001 
Fractional lengthening (ΔL/Lrest0.1316 0.0004 
Fractional shortening (ΔL/Lrest0.0021 <0.0001 
Relative amplitude of EMG 0.1246 0.0248 
Shortening phase of wingbeat (%) 0.2982 0.3242 
EMG onset (%) 0.0380 0.1492 
EMG offset (%) 0.0330 0.0161 
VariableFlight mode (d.f.=6,2) P-valueFlight velocity (d.f.=4,6) P-value
Strain rate (L s-10.0013 <0.0001 
Strain (ΔL/Lrest0.0007 <0.0001 
Fractional lengthening (ΔL/Lrest0.1316 0.0004 
Fractional shortening (ΔL/Lrest0.0021 <0.0001 
Relative amplitude of EMG 0.1246 0.0248 
Shortening phase of wingbeat (%) 0.2982 0.3242 
EMG onset (%) 0.0380 0.1492 
EMG offset (%) 0.0330 0.0161 

Values are from repeated-measures analysis of variance.

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