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Table 1.

Metabolic rates of foot-propelled and wing-propelled avian divers when resting in air and water and during diving

Mass (kg)Water temp. (°C)BMR* (W kg−1)Resting in water
Diving
Species(W kg−1)BMR)(W kg−1)BMR)Source
Foot-propelled divers         
Aythya fuligula (Af) 0.597 13.6 4.80 5.38 1.1 18.68 3.9 Woakes and Butler (1983) 
 0.578 23.0 4.80 5.96 1.2 13.53 2.8 Bevan and Butler (1992) 
 0.571 14.4 4.80 7.52 1.6 15.21 3.2 Bevan et al. (1992) 
 0.605 7.4 4.80 10.84 2.3 18.50 3.8 Bevan and Butler (1992) 
 0.600 22.0 4.80 5.83 1.2 19.00 4.0 De Leeuw (1996) 
 0.600 8.0 4.80 8.33 1.7 24.50 5.1 De Leeuw (1996) 
Aythya affinis (Aa) 0.591 13.0 4.80 7.90 1.6 21.00 4.4 Stephenson (1994) 
Somateria mollissima (Sm) 1.79 13.7-19.0 4.20 10.05 2.4 16.09 3.8 Hawkins et al. (2000) 
Phalacrocorax carbo (Pc) 2.40 12.6 3.10 14.10 4.5 31.40 10.1 Schmid et al. (1995) 
Phalacrocorax carbo (Pc) 2.54 5.1 3.10 14.10 4.5 29.10 9.4 Grémillet et al. (2003) 
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Pa) 1.67 9.0 4.73 19.37 4.1 22.66 4.8 Present study 
Wing-propelled divers         
Uria lomvia (Ul) 0.803 20.0 8.59 8.84 1.0 21.17 2.5 Croll and McLaren (1993) 
Uria aalge (Ua) 0.836 20.0 7.18 7.30 1.0 16.51 2.3 Croll and McLaren (1993) 
Eudyptula minor (Em) 1.20 21.0 3.30 6.40 1.9 7.28 2.2 Baudinette and Gill (1985) 
Eudyptula minor (Em) 1.20 10.0 3.30 8.50 2.6 12.90 3.9 Bethge et al. (1997) 
Spheniscus humboldti (Sh) 4.60 18.0 2.45 4.25 1.7 7.24 3.0 Butler and Woakes (1984) 
Spheniscus humboldti (Sh) 3.60 19.0 2.45 5.95 2.4 10.20 4.2 Luna-Jorquera and Culik (2000) 
Pygoscelis antarctica (Pan) 3.80 4.0 3.72 8.75 2.3 8.90 2.4 Culik et al. (1994) 
Pygoscelis adeliae (Pad) 4.00 4.0 3.72 8.36 2.2 10.80 2.9 Culik et al. (1994) 
Pygoscelis papua (Pp) 5.50 4.0 3.89 8.19 2.1 13.70 3.5 Culik et al. (1994) 
Aptenodytes patagonicus (Ap) 11.50 9.1 3.50 4.65 1.3 8.40 2.4 Culik et al. (1996) 
Aptenodytes forsteri (Afo) 23.30 1.5-6.1 1.98 2.14 1.1 6.57 3.3 Kooyman and Ponganis (1994) 
Mass (kg)Water temp. (°C)BMR* (W kg−1)Resting in water
Diving
Species(W kg−1)BMR)(W kg−1)BMR)Source
Foot-propelled divers         
Aythya fuligula (Af) 0.597 13.6 4.80 5.38 1.1 18.68 3.9 Woakes and Butler (1983) 
 0.578 23.0 4.80 5.96 1.2 13.53 2.8 Bevan and Butler (1992) 
 0.571 14.4 4.80 7.52 1.6 15.21 3.2 Bevan et al. (1992) 
 0.605 7.4 4.80 10.84 2.3 18.50 3.8 Bevan and Butler (1992) 
 0.600 22.0 4.80 5.83 1.2 19.00 4.0 De Leeuw (1996) 
 0.600 8.0 4.80 8.33 1.7 24.50 5.1 De Leeuw (1996) 
Aythya affinis (Aa) 0.591 13.0 4.80 7.90 1.6 21.00 4.4 Stephenson (1994) 
Somateria mollissima (Sm) 1.79 13.7-19.0 4.20 10.05 2.4 16.09 3.8 Hawkins et al. (2000) 
Phalacrocorax carbo (Pc) 2.40 12.6 3.10 14.10 4.5 31.40 10.1 Schmid et al. (1995) 
Phalacrocorax carbo (Pc) 2.54 5.1 3.10 14.10 4.5 29.10 9.4 Grémillet et al. (2003) 
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Pa) 1.67 9.0 4.73 19.37 4.1 22.66 4.8 Present study 
Wing-propelled divers         
Uria lomvia (Ul) 0.803 20.0 8.59 8.84 1.0 21.17 2.5 Croll and McLaren (1993) 
Uria aalge (Ua) 0.836 20.0 7.18 7.30 1.0 16.51 2.3 Croll and McLaren (1993) 
Eudyptula minor (Em) 1.20 21.0 3.30 6.40 1.9 7.28 2.2 Baudinette and Gill (1985) 
Eudyptula minor (Em) 1.20 10.0 3.30 8.50 2.6 12.90 3.9 Bethge et al. (1997) 
Spheniscus humboldti (Sh) 4.60 18.0 2.45 4.25 1.7 7.24 3.0 Butler and Woakes (1984) 
Spheniscus humboldti (Sh) 3.60 19.0 2.45 5.95 2.4 10.20 4.2 Luna-Jorquera and Culik (2000) 
Pygoscelis antarctica (Pan) 3.80 4.0 3.72 8.75 2.3 8.90 2.4 Culik et al. (1994) 
Pygoscelis adeliae (Pad) 4.00 4.0 3.72 8.36 2.2 10.80 2.9 Culik et al. (1994) 
Pygoscelis papua (Pp) 5.50 4.0 3.89 8.19 2.1 13.70 3.5 Culik et al. (1994) 
Aptenodytes patagonicus (Ap) 11.50 9.1 3.50 4.65 1.3 8.40 2.4 Culik et al. (1996) 
Aptenodytes forsteri (Afo) 23.30 1.5-6.1 1.98 2.14 1.1 6.57 3.3 Kooyman and Ponganis (1994) 

Only respirometry studies were included in Table 1. An energetic equivalent of 19.7 kJ l−1 O2 was assumed when transforming oxygen consumption to Watts.

*

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) values were taken from the following sources: Af and Aa, Daan et al.(1990); Pc, Schmid et al. (1995); Em,Stahel and Nicol (1988); Sh, Drent and Stonehouse(1971); Pan and Pad, Chappell and Souza(1988); Pp, Bevan et al. (1995); Ap, Cherel et al. (1988); Afo,Le Maho et al. (1976).

Resting-in-water rates were taken from Schmid et al.(1995) for Pc and from Culik et al. (1991) for Pan, Pad and Pp.

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