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Table 1.

`Standard' model parameter values for an average adult Weddell seal

ParameterAbbreviationValue
Body mass (kg) Mb 450.0 
Brain mass (kg) MB 0.6 
Heart mass (kg) Mh 1.9 
Skeletal muscle mass (kg) Mm 157.5 
Viscera and blood mass (kg) Mv 290.0 
Whole body oxygen consumption (l min-1O2 1.78 
Brain oxygen consumption (l min-1BO2 0.0133 
Myocardium oxygen consumption (l min-1hO2 0.225 
Skeletal muscle oxygen consumption (l min-1mO2 0.432 
Viscera oxygen consumption (l min-1vO2 1.11 
Whole body carbon dioxide production (l min-1CO2 1.515 
Brain carbon dioxide production (l min-1BCO2 0.0133 
Myocardium carbon dioxide production (l min-1hCO2 0.191 
Skeletal muscle carbon dioxide production (l min-1mCO2 0.367 
Viscera carbon dioxide production (l min-1vCO2 0.944 
Barometric pressure (mmHg) Pb 760 
Fractional inspired oxygen concentration FiO2 0.2093 
Fractional inspired carbon dioxide concentration FiCO2 0.0004 
Average lung volume (l) Vl 16 
Pulmonary dead space volume (l) Vd 1.6 
Tidal volume (l) Vt 5.4 
Standard resting lung ventilation (l min-1rest 20 
Maximum lung ventilation (l min-1max 240 
Central chemoreceptor threshold (mmHg CO2Tc 37.4 
Central chemosensitivity (l min-1 mmHg-1 CO2Sc 12.29 
Peripheral chemoreceptor threshold (mmHg CO2Tp 37.4 
Sp hypoxic shape constant (l min-1 mmHg-1 CO2mmHg-1 O2350 
Sp hypoxic asymptote (mmHg O215 
Chemoreflex (apnoeic) threshold (mmHg CO2T1 43.7 
Chemoreflex drive threshold (l min-1Tchem 103.4 
Central neural drive (l min-1n 
Maximum cardiac output (l min-1max 84.3 
Maximum heart rate (beats min-1fhmax 85 
Standard cerebral blood flow (l min-1Brest 0.6 
Minimum cerebral blood flow(×BrestBmin 0.4 
Cerebrovascular CO2 gain(×BrestmmHg-1Gq 0.05 
Standard resting arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (mmHg) PaCO2rest 44 
Minimum arterial oxygen partial pressure (mmHg) PaO2min 15 
Standard oxygen extraction coefficient - heart 
\(E_{\mathrm{h}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{rest}}^{*}\)
 
0.19 
Standard oxygen extraction coefficient - muscle 
\(E_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{rest}}^{*}\)
 
0.115 
Maximum muscle oxygen extraction coefficient 
\(E_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{max}}^{*}\)
 
10 
Minimum muscle oxygen extraction coefficient 
\(E_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{min}}^{*}\)
 
0.03 
Standard oxygen extraction coefficient - viscera 
\(E_{\mathrm{v}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{rest}}^{*}\)
 
0.115 
Maximum viscera oxygen extraction coefficient 
\(E_{\mathrm{v}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{max}}^{*}\)
 
0.8 
Minimum viscera oxygen extraction coefficient 
\(E_{\mathrm{v}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{min}}^{*}\)
 
0.03 
Arterio-venous blood shunt (l min-1a-v̄ 
Blood volume (l) V96 
Arterial blood volume (l) Vba 28.8 
Venous blood volume (l) Vbv 67.2 
Arterial effective mixed volume (l) Vamix 4.3 
Venous effective mixed volume (l) Vvmix 20.2 
Haemoglobin concentration (kgHb l-1 blood) CHb 0.26 
Haemoglobin P50 (mmHg O2P50Hb 26.9 
Hill coefficient n 2.39 
Standard resting haemoglobin saturation SaO2rest 0.975 
Myoglobin concentration (kg Mb kg-1 muscle) CMb 0.054 
Myoglobin P50 (mmHg O2P50Mb 2.39 
Minimum myoglobin O2 saturation SmO2min 0.01 
Pigment oxygen binding coefficient (l O2 kg-1 pigment) βHb, βMb 1.34 
ParameterAbbreviationValue
Body mass (kg) Mb 450.0 
Brain mass (kg) MB 0.6 
Heart mass (kg) Mh 1.9 
Skeletal muscle mass (kg) Mm 157.5 
Viscera and blood mass (kg) Mv 290.0 
Whole body oxygen consumption (l min-1O2 1.78 
Brain oxygen consumption (l min-1BO2 0.0133 
Myocardium oxygen consumption (l min-1hO2 0.225 
Skeletal muscle oxygen consumption (l min-1mO2 0.432 
Viscera oxygen consumption (l min-1vO2 1.11 
Whole body carbon dioxide production (l min-1CO2 1.515 
Brain carbon dioxide production (l min-1BCO2 0.0133 
Myocardium carbon dioxide production (l min-1hCO2 0.191 
Skeletal muscle carbon dioxide production (l min-1mCO2 0.367 
Viscera carbon dioxide production (l min-1vCO2 0.944 
Barometric pressure (mmHg) Pb 760 
Fractional inspired oxygen concentration FiO2 0.2093 
Fractional inspired carbon dioxide concentration FiCO2 0.0004 
Average lung volume (l) Vl 16 
Pulmonary dead space volume (l) Vd 1.6 
Tidal volume (l) Vt 5.4 
Standard resting lung ventilation (l min-1rest 20 
Maximum lung ventilation (l min-1max 240 
Central chemoreceptor threshold (mmHg CO2Tc 37.4 
Central chemosensitivity (l min-1 mmHg-1 CO2Sc 12.29 
Peripheral chemoreceptor threshold (mmHg CO2Tp 37.4 
Sp hypoxic shape constant (l min-1 mmHg-1 CO2mmHg-1 O2350 
Sp hypoxic asymptote (mmHg O215 
Chemoreflex (apnoeic) threshold (mmHg CO2T1 43.7 
Chemoreflex drive threshold (l min-1Tchem 103.4 
Central neural drive (l min-1n 
Maximum cardiac output (l min-1max 84.3 
Maximum heart rate (beats min-1fhmax 85 
Standard cerebral blood flow (l min-1Brest 0.6 
Minimum cerebral blood flow(×BrestBmin 0.4 
Cerebrovascular CO2 gain(×BrestmmHg-1Gq 0.05 
Standard resting arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (mmHg) PaCO2rest 44 
Minimum arterial oxygen partial pressure (mmHg) PaO2min 15 
Standard oxygen extraction coefficient - heart 
\(E_{\mathrm{h}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{rest}}^{*}\)
 
0.19 
Standard oxygen extraction coefficient - muscle 
\(E_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{rest}}^{*}\)
 
0.115 
Maximum muscle oxygen extraction coefficient 
\(E_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{max}}^{*}\)
 
10 
Minimum muscle oxygen extraction coefficient 
\(E_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{min}}^{*}\)
 
0.03 
Standard oxygen extraction coefficient - viscera 
\(E_{\mathrm{v}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{rest}}^{*}\)
 
0.115 
Maximum viscera oxygen extraction coefficient 
\(E_{\mathrm{v}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{max}}^{*}\)
 
0.8 
Minimum viscera oxygen extraction coefficient 
\(E_{\mathrm{v}\mathrm{O}_{2}\mathrm{min}}^{*}\)
 
0.03 
Arterio-venous blood shunt (l min-1a-v̄ 
Blood volume (l) V96 
Arterial blood volume (l) Vba 28.8 
Venous blood volume (l) Vbv 67.2 
Arterial effective mixed volume (l) Vamix 4.3 
Venous effective mixed volume (l) Vvmix 20.2 
Haemoglobin concentration (kgHb l-1 blood) CHb 0.26 
Haemoglobin P50 (mmHg O2P50Hb 26.9 
Hill coefficient n 2.39 
Standard resting haemoglobin saturation SaO2rest 0.975 
Myoglobin concentration (kg Mb kg-1 muscle) CMb 0.054 
Myoglobin P50 (mmHg O2P50Mb 2.39 
Minimum myoglobin O2 saturation SmO2min 0.01 
Pigment oxygen binding coefficient (l O2 kg-1 pigment) βHb, βMb 1.34 

Data taken from Blix et al.,1983; Castellini et al.,1992; Cunningham et al.,1986; Davis and Kanatous,1999; Duffin et al.,2000; Elsner et al.,1970; Fortune et al.,1992; Kooyman and Campbell,1972; Kooyman et al., 1971, 1973, 1980; Lange et al., 1966; Ponganis et al., 1993; Zapol et al., 1979.

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