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Table 1.

Summary data for C. paradisi aerial locomotion

Mean ± s.d.Min.Max.N
Snakes     
Mass (g) 40.5±23.1 3.0 82.7 14 
Snout-vent length (cm) 68.6±15.7 31.0 86.5 14 
Tail length (cm) 23.2±6.2 9.6 29.4 14 
Wing loading (N m−229±9 12 46 11 
Trajectory performance     
Trajectory time analyzed (s) 1.95±0.22 1.53 2.37 14 
Vertical distance analyzed (m) 8.61±1.05 7.04 9.86 14 
Horizontal distance, total (m) 10.14±2.69 6.28 14.29 14 
Ballistic dive angle (degrees) 57±3 52 62 14 
Ballistic dive time (s) 0.72±0.18 0.40 1.03 13 
Ballistic dive depth (m) 2.32±1.12 0.95 5.21 13 
Shallowing rate (degrees s−120±6 11 36 14 
Glide angle, min (degrees) 28±10 13 46 14 
Glide ratio, max 2.2±1.1 1.0 4.2 14 
Airspeed at takeoff (m s−11.7±0.6 0.8 2.8 14 
Forward acceleration, initial (m s−27±1 10 14 
Sinking acceleration, initial (m s−26±2 11 14 
Horizontal acceleration, initial (m s−24±1 14 
Time at airspeed transition (s) 1.11±0.31 0.63 1.67 12 
Time at sinking speed transition (s) 0.93±0.22 0.53 1.30 13 
Time at horizontal speed transition (s) 1.58±0.15 1.37 1.90 
Airspeed at transition (m s−18.9±1.4 6.1 11.0 12 
Sinking speed at transition (m s−16.1±0.7 4.5 7.2 13 
Horizontal speed at transition (m s−18.3±1.1 6.3 9.7 
Airspeed, max (m s−110.0±0.9 8.1 11.0 13 
Sinking speed, max (m s−16.4±0.8 4.9 7.3 13 
Horizontal speed, max (m s−18.1±0.9 6.4 9.3 13 
Behavior     
Undulation period (s) 0.77±0.14 0.50 1.00 13 
Undulation frequency (Hz) 1.4±0.3 1.0 2.0 13 
Undulation wavelength (m) 0.20±0.07 0.18 0.25 
Undulation wave speed (m s−10.24±0.03 0.22 0.26 
Undulation wave height, head (cm) 0.13±0.04 0.05 0.19 13 
Undulation wave height, vent (cm) 0.23±0.07 0.09 0.32 12 
Undulation wave height, head (% SVL) 20±3 15 25 13 
Undulation wave height, vent (% SVL) 34±5 24 43 12 
Mean ± s.d.Min.Max.N
Snakes     
Mass (g) 40.5±23.1 3.0 82.7 14 
Snout-vent length (cm) 68.6±15.7 31.0 86.5 14 
Tail length (cm) 23.2±6.2 9.6 29.4 14 
Wing loading (N m−229±9 12 46 11 
Trajectory performance     
Trajectory time analyzed (s) 1.95±0.22 1.53 2.37 14 
Vertical distance analyzed (m) 8.61±1.05 7.04 9.86 14 
Horizontal distance, total (m) 10.14±2.69 6.28 14.29 14 
Ballistic dive angle (degrees) 57±3 52 62 14 
Ballistic dive time (s) 0.72±0.18 0.40 1.03 13 
Ballistic dive depth (m) 2.32±1.12 0.95 5.21 13 
Shallowing rate (degrees s−120±6 11 36 14 
Glide angle, min (degrees) 28±10 13 46 14 
Glide ratio, max 2.2±1.1 1.0 4.2 14 
Airspeed at takeoff (m s−11.7±0.6 0.8 2.8 14 
Forward acceleration, initial (m s−27±1 10 14 
Sinking acceleration, initial (m s−26±2 11 14 
Horizontal acceleration, initial (m s−24±1 14 
Time at airspeed transition (s) 1.11±0.31 0.63 1.67 12 
Time at sinking speed transition (s) 0.93±0.22 0.53 1.30 13 
Time at horizontal speed transition (s) 1.58±0.15 1.37 1.90 
Airspeed at transition (m s−18.9±1.4 6.1 11.0 12 
Sinking speed at transition (m s−16.1±0.7 4.5 7.2 13 
Horizontal speed at transition (m s−18.3±1.1 6.3 9.7 
Airspeed, max (m s−110.0±0.9 8.1 11.0 13 
Sinking speed, max (m s−16.4±0.8 4.9 7.3 13 
Horizontal speed, max (m s−18.1±0.9 6.4 9.3 13 
Behavior     
Undulation period (s) 0.77±0.14 0.50 1.00 13 
Undulation frequency (Hz) 1.4±0.3 1.0 2.0 13 
Undulation wavelength (m) 0.20±0.07 0.18 0.25 
Undulation wave speed (m s−10.24±0.03 0.22 0.26 
Undulation wave height, head (cm) 0.13±0.04 0.05 0.19 13 
Undulation wave height, vent (cm) 0.23±0.07 0.09 0.32 12 
Undulation wave height, head (% SVL) 20±3 15 25 13 
Undulation wave height, vent (% SVL) 34±5 24 43 12 
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