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Table 1.

Mean tongue position (mm), translation (mm) and deformation (%),recorded by high-speed fluoroscopy

INIT (mm)MAX (mm)DIF (mm)REL (%)
M. hyoglossus: (#9+#10)/2 -80.1±16.61 -74.8±17.05 5.3±0.99 10.8±0.5% 
Anterior tongue: #7-#8 11.0±0.35 17.7±1.24 6.7±1.32 60.5±13.0% 
Posterior tongue: #8-(#9+#10)/2 13.9±0.55 31.6±1.69 17.9±1.48 128.0±12.5% 
Total tongue: #7-(#9+#10)/2 24.9±0.54 49.3±2.32 24.5±2.45 98.0±10.6% 
INIT (mm)MAX (mm)DIF (mm)REL (%)
M. hyoglossus: (#9+#10)/2 -80.1±16.61 -74.8±17.05 5.3±0.99 10.8±0.5% 
Anterior tongue: #7-#8 11.0±0.35 17.7±1.24 6.7±1.32 60.5±13.0% 
Posterior tongue: #8-(#9+#10)/2 13.9±0.55 31.6±1.69 17.9±1.48 128.0±12.5% 
Total tongue: #7-(#9+#10)/2 24.9±0.54 49.3±2.32 24.5±2.45 98.0±10.6% 

The marker numbers #7-#10 coincide with the numbers in Fig. 1. Means ± s.d. are given for N=9 different tongue flick sequences. INIT, the initial (rest) position of the tongue (m. hyoglossus markers) and initial tongue length (mm); MAX, the position of the tongue (m. hyoglossus markers) and tongue length at maximum protrusion (mm); DIF, displacement of the tongue (m. hyoglossus markers) and tongue elongation from the initial position to maximum protrusion (mm); REL, displacement of the tongue (m. hyoglossus markers) and tongue elongation from the initial position to maximum protrusion expressed as a percentage of the initial tongue length.

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