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Table 1.

Morphological parameters and maximum body weight-specific vertical force production for eleven species of euglossine bee

Taxonomic identification (N)m (mg)mw (%m)R (cm)ARpw (N m-2)FMR (%m)Fvert/mg
Eufriesea pulchra (11) 366.7±36.8 0.48±0.04 1.38±0.30 6.59±0.34 30.84±2.63 38.3±2.5 2.11±0.13 (N=10) 
Eufriesea schmidtiana (1) 483.5 0.63 1.71 6.80 27.55 31.1b 1.89 
Euglossa crassipunctata (9) 68.1±7.0 n/a 0.81±0.02 6.39±0.26 16.15±1.52 32.8±1.2 2.06±0.09 (N=8) 
Euglossa imperialisa(29) 165.9±22.9 0.45±0.07 1.11±0.04 6.80±0.35 22.57±2.37 32.1±2.3 2.01±0.12 (N=11) 
Euglossa sapphirina (8) 56.6±4.3 n/a 0.73±0.02 6.65±0.54 17.49±1.30 32.9±1.4 2.04±0.10 (N=8) 
Euglossa tridentata (10) 116.1±11.6 0.40±0.06 0.93±0.03 6.70±0.15 22.23±2.04 32.6±1.8 1.90±0.08 (N=10) 
Eulaema cingulata (1) 545.4 0.55 1.76 6.88 29.70 34.8b 2.07 
Eulaema meriana (11) 817.1±95.4 0.77±0.05 2.17±0.06 6.28±0.15 26.83±3.07 33.7±3.5 1.77±0.11 
Eulaema nigritaa(17) 401.6±53.6 0.57±0.07 1.55±0.06 6.45±0.29 26.37±2.80 33.9±3.7 2.13±0.25 (N=11) 
Exaerete frontalis (12) 676.9±44.7 0.96±0.06 2.29±0.04 6.49±0.26 20.50±1.79 35.1±2.2 1.82±0.12 (N=10) 
Exaerete smaragdina (3) 323.1±84.6 0.80±0.17 1.65±0.11 6.17±0.29 17.74±2.80 35.7±1.0b 1.87±0.08 (N=2) 
Taxonomic identification (N)m (mg)mw (%m)R (cm)ARpw (N m-2)FMR (%m)Fvert/mg
Eufriesea pulchra (11) 366.7±36.8 0.48±0.04 1.38±0.30 6.59±0.34 30.84±2.63 38.3±2.5 2.11±0.13 (N=10) 
Eufriesea schmidtiana (1) 483.5 0.63 1.71 6.80 27.55 31.1b 1.89 
Euglossa crassipunctata (9) 68.1±7.0 n/a 0.81±0.02 6.39±0.26 16.15±1.52 32.8±1.2 2.06±0.09 (N=8) 
Euglossa imperialisa(29) 165.9±22.9 0.45±0.07 1.11±0.04 6.80±0.35 22.57±2.37 32.1±2.3 2.01±0.12 (N=11) 
Euglossa sapphirina (8) 56.6±4.3 n/a 0.73±0.02 6.65±0.54 17.49±1.30 32.9±1.4 2.04±0.10 (N=8) 
Euglossa tridentata (10) 116.1±11.6 0.40±0.06 0.93±0.03 6.70±0.15 22.23±2.04 32.6±1.8 1.90±0.08 (N=10) 
Eulaema cingulata (1) 545.4 0.55 1.76 6.88 29.70 34.8b 2.07 
Eulaema meriana (11) 817.1±95.4 0.77±0.05 2.17±0.06 6.28±0.15 26.83±3.07 33.7±3.5 1.77±0.11 
Eulaema nigritaa(17) 401.6±53.6 0.57±0.07 1.55±0.06 6.45±0.29 26.37±2.80 33.9±3.7 2.13±0.25 (N=11) 
Exaerete frontalis (12) 676.9±44.7 0.96±0.06 2.29±0.04 6.49±0.26 20.50±1.79 35.1±2.2 1.82±0.12 (N=10) 
Exaerete smaragdina (3) 323.1±84.6 0.80±0.17 1.65±0.11 6.17±0.29 17.74±2.80 35.7±1.0b 1.87±0.08 (N=2) 

m, body mass; mw, total wing mass; mmus, flight muscle mass; R, wing length; AR, aspect ratio; pw, wing loading; FMR,mmus/m; Fvert, maximum vertical force; g, gravitational acceleration.

Values are means ± 1 s.d. Sample size N follows taxonomic identification unless otherwise noted.

n/a, not applicable.

a

Morphological data are pooled from 1997 and 1998 samples, whereas values of Fvert/mg refer to 1997 data only (see text)

b

Values for FMR were calculated using the regression of flight muscle mass on body mass for congenerics (see text)

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