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Table 1.

Mean ± s.d. of tongue angles in each quadrant for six individuals of Phrynomerus bifasciatus, together with the results of a t-test examining the effect on aiming after right unilateral M. genioglossus denervation on one individual

IndividualQuadrant A (—105° to —46°)Quadrant B (—45° to —6°)Quadrant C (—5° to +5°)Quadrant D (+6° to +45°)Quadrant E (+46° to +105°)
Normal      
—57.0±10.9 —33.8±8.5 0.4±0.5 +32.2±8.4 +62.0±14.8 
—51.2±3.0 —32.8±8.9 0.8±0.8 +32.4±6.1 +57.8±4.3 
—60.0±1.4 —33.0±3.4 2.0±2.1 +37.3±4.6 +67.5±20.0 
—60.2±18.2 —36.4±6.9 0.2±0.4 +32.6±3.5 +84.2±21.3 
—52.2±5.6 —30.4±8.2 1.0±1.4 +35.4±8.1 +51.0±5.5 
—55.3±11.4 —30.5±9.5 0.8±1.3 +36.8±5.1 +62.3±6.3 
After right unilateral M. genioglossus denervation      
+30.0±16.5* +38.0±9.4* +34.6±4.0* +38.6±5.9 +64.3±19.0 
IndividualQuadrant A (—105° to —46°)Quadrant B (—45° to —6°)Quadrant C (—5° to +5°)Quadrant D (+6° to +45°)Quadrant E (+46° to +105°)
Normal      
—57.0±10.9 —33.8±8.5 0.4±0.5 +32.2±8.4 +62.0±14.8 
—51.2±3.0 —32.8±8.9 0.8±0.8 +32.4±6.1 +57.8±4.3 
—60.0±1.4 —33.0±3.4 2.0±2.1 +37.3±4.6 +67.5±20.0 
—60.2±18.2 —36.4±6.9 0.2±0.4 +32.6±3.5 +84.2±21.3 
—52.2±5.6 —30.4±8.2 1.0±1.4 +35.4±8.1 +51.0±5.5 
—55.3±11.4 —30.5±9.5 0.8±1.3 +36.8±5.1 +62.3±6.3 
After right unilateral M. genioglossus denervation      
+30.0±16.5* +38.0±9.4* +34.6±4.0* +38.6±5.9 +64.3±19.0 
*

Aiming was significantly (P<0.05) affected in quadrants A, B and C, in which the tongue consistently deviated towards the intact side(animal's right side)

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