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Table 1.

Daily gastric pH, motility, and temperature, before and after a fish meal, in non-incubating king penguins

Day after feeding
ParametersFasting day012RM-ANOVA
pH      
    Daily 2.94±0.51 (3) 3.44±0.47 (3) 3.18±0.89 (3) 3.14±0.99 (2) NS 
    Minimum 2.29±0.65a,b (3) 2.84±0.57c (3) 2.40±0.84b,c (3) 2.48±0.93b,c (2) P=0.039 
    Maximum 3.54±0.31 (3) 4.32±0.42 (3) 3.92±1.08 (3) 4.10±0.64 (2) NS 
Motility      
    Daily 26.8±6.4a (4) 13.6±3.9b (4) 23.3±3.9a (4) 28.2±8.1a (3) P=0.011 
    Minimum 6.5±2.6a,b (4) 1.9±0.8c (4) 3.2±1.9b,c (4) 3.6±0.9b,c (3) P=0.042 
    Maximum 87.5±24.9 (4) 50.9±16.2 (4) 81.0±41.1 (4) 76.2±38.5 (3) NS 
Temperature      
    Daily 37.8±0.7a (6) 37.5±0.9b (5) 37.7±0.7a (6) 38.1±0.2a (5) P=0.007 
    Minimum 37.3±0.8a (6) 35.5±0.8b (5) 37.2±0.7a (6) 37.5±0.2a (5) P<0.001 
    Maximum 38.5±0.7a (6) 38.1±0.7b (5) 38.4±0.7a (6) 38.7±0.3a (5) P=0.005 
Day after feeding
ParametersFasting day012RM-ANOVA
pH      
    Daily 2.94±0.51 (3) 3.44±0.47 (3) 3.18±0.89 (3) 3.14±0.99 (2) NS 
    Minimum 2.29±0.65a,b (3) 2.84±0.57c (3) 2.40±0.84b,c (3) 2.48±0.93b,c (2) P=0.039 
    Maximum 3.54±0.31 (3) 4.32±0.42 (3) 3.92±1.08 (3) 4.10±0.64 (2) NS 
Motility      
    Daily 26.8±6.4a (4) 13.6±3.9b (4) 23.3±3.9a (4) 28.2±8.1a (3) P=0.011 
    Minimum 6.5±2.6a,b (4) 1.9±0.8c (4) 3.2±1.9b,c (4) 3.6±0.9b,c (3) P=0.042 
    Maximum 87.5±24.9 (4) 50.9±16.2 (4) 81.0±41.1 (4) 76.2±38.5 (3) NS 
Temperature      
    Daily 37.8±0.7a (6) 37.5±0.9b (5) 37.7±0.7a (6) 38.1±0.2a (5) P=0.007 
    Minimum 37.3±0.8a (6) 35.5±0.8b (5) 37.2±0.7a (6) 37.5±0.2a (5) P<0.001 
    Maximum 38.5±0.7a (6) 38.1±0.7b (5) 38.4±0.7a (6) 38.7±0.3a (5) P=0.005 

Values are means ± s.d. (N=number of birds).

Daily pH is the daily mean of data collected every 20 s. Minimum and maximum values were obtained from mean 1 h pH, motility or temperature data.

Values in the same line followed by different letter superscripts are significantly different (P<0.05); NS, not significant.

For temperature, data from 6 birds instead of 7 were used because one temperature sensor was out of order from the onset of the experiment. Similarly, on day 0 after feeding we have 5 birds instead of 6 because one temperature logger was temporarily defective for an unknown reason. The number of birds decreased over days because some individuals regurgitated the device before the end of the experiment.

Motility is expressed in relative units of the full range (0-255) of the device (Peters, 2004).

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