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Table 1.

Kinematic data – speed, duty factor, stride length and stride frequency

WalkTrotGallop
Speed (m s-1   
    Small 0.83±0.17 (N=4) 1.66±0.25 (N=5) 2.34±0.47 (N=6) 
    Intermediate 0.85±0.15 (N=6) 1.73±0.33 (N=7) 2.74±0.41 (N=7) 
    Adult 1.21±0.10 (N=3) 2.27±0.15 (N=3) 3.59±0.41 (N=5) 
Duty factor    
    Small 0.58±0.02 (N=4) 0.45±0.03 (N=5) 0.35±0.03 (N=6) 
    Intermediate 0.59±0.04 (N=6) 0.46±0.08 (N=7) 0.33±0.05 (N=7) 
    Adult 0.60±0.02 (N=3) 0.44±0.03 (N=3) 0.32±0.02 (N=5) 
Stride length (m)    
    Small 0.41±0.05 (N=4) 0.56±0.03 (N=5) 0.73±0.11 (N=6) 
    Intermediate 0.45±0.05 (N=6) 0.60±0.06 (N=7) 0.85±0.08 (N=7) 
    Adult 0.76±0.03 (N=3) 0.96±0.04 (N=3) 1.30±0.13 (N=5) 
Stride frequency (s-1   
    Small 2.05±0.23 (N=4) 2.96±0.39 (N=5) 3.23±0.40 (N=6) 
    Intermediate 1.97±0.29 (N=6) 2.86±0.31 (N=7) 3.22±0.21 (N=7) 
    Adult 1.56±0.09 (N=3) 2.37±0.05 (N=3) 2.78±0.23 (N=5) 
WalkTrotGallop
Speed (m s-1   
    Small 0.83±0.17 (N=4) 1.66±0.25 (N=5) 2.34±0.47 (N=6) 
    Intermediate 0.85±0.15 (N=6) 1.73±0.33 (N=7) 2.74±0.41 (N=7) 
    Adult 1.21±0.10 (N=3) 2.27±0.15 (N=3) 3.59±0.41 (N=5) 
Duty factor    
    Small 0.58±0.02 (N=4) 0.45±0.03 (N=5) 0.35±0.03 (N=6) 
    Intermediate 0.59±0.04 (N=6) 0.46±0.08 (N=7) 0.33±0.05 (N=7) 
    Adult 0.60±0.02 (N=3) 0.44±0.03 (N=3) 0.32±0.02 (N=5) 
Stride length (m)    
    Small 0.41±0.05 (N=4) 0.56±0.03 (N=5) 0.73±0.11 (N=6) 
    Intermediate 0.45±0.05 (N=6) 0.60±0.06 (N=7) 0.85±0.08 (N=7) 
    Adult 0.76±0.03 (N=3) 0.96±0.04 (N=3) 1.30±0.13 (N=5) 
Stride frequency (s-1   
    Small 2.05±0.23 (N=4) 2.96±0.39 (N=5) 3.23±0.40 (N=6) 
    Intermediate 1.97±0.29 (N=6) 2.86±0.31 (N=7) 3.22±0.21 (N=7) 
    Adult 1.56±0.09 (N=3) 2.37±0.05 (N=3) 2.78±0.23 (N=5) 

Data (means ± s.d.) for the small and intermediate groups are from strain trials, while data for the adult group are from ground reaction force (GRF) trials. The mean speeds from the strain trials collected previously (Biewener and Taylor, 1986) and the adult GRF trials collected here were not significantly different (Student's paired t-tests, P>0.05).

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