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Table 4.

Ice-nucleating activity of natural (nonautoclaved) and autoclaved samples of experimental substrata, eggshell and turtle feces, as determined by measuring the temperature of crystallization (Tc)of bulk samples containing a small volume of water and of washings prepared from samples

Temperature of crystallization (°C)
Bulk
Washing
NaturalAutoclavedNaturalAutoclaved
Vermiculite -6.1±0.2 -6.5±0.3 -18.7±0.2 -18.7±0.6 
Nesting soil -4.9±0.3 -6.1±0.2* -5.4±0.1 -13.2±0.7* 
Eggshell -8.4±0.3 -8.8±0.7 -17.3±0.5 -20.0±0.4* 
Feces -9.1±1.1 -13.7±0.6* -15.3±1.2 -16.8±0.9 
Water (control) — -17.8±1.2 — -22.7±0.3 
Temperature of crystallization (°C)
Bulk
Washing
NaturalAutoclavedNaturalAutoclaved
Vermiculite -6.1±0.2 -6.5±0.3 -18.7±0.2 -18.7±0.6 
Nesting soil -4.9±0.3 -6.1±0.2* -5.4±0.1 -13.2±0.7* 
Eggshell -8.4±0.3 -8.8±0.7 -17.3±0.5 -20.0±0.4* 
Feces -9.1±1.1 -13.7±0.6* -15.3±1.2 -16.8±0.9 
Water (control) — -17.8±1.2 — -22.7±0.3 

Values are means ± S.E.M.; N=10 replicates per group.

Asterisk denotes significant difference between natural and autoclaved samples within the pair. Statistical significance is taken at the level of P<0.05.

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