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Table 3.

Linear mixed model (REML) of energy expenditure (from Experiment 2), in relation to temperature treatment, day from temperature change, time of day and week

Energy expenditure
Termd.f.EffectWald statistic (χ2)P value
Minimal model     
    Day from change -19.81±3.10 45.85 <0.001 
    Temperature treatment     
        HM    
        MH  31.09±17.64 15.11 0.002 
        ML 58.91±17.88   
        LM  2.40±18.93   
    Time of day     
        Day 120.27 <0.001 
        Night  -135.32±12.34   
    Week -31.01±3.10 100.21 <0.001 
Excluded terms     
    Food quality  1.02 0.313 
    Mean temperature  4.25 0.120 
    Female mass  3.29 0.070 
Energy expenditure
Termd.f.EffectWald statistic (χ2)P value
Minimal model     
    Day from change -19.81±3.10 45.85 <0.001 
    Temperature treatment     
        HM    
        MH  31.09±17.64 15.11 0.002 
        ML 58.91±17.88   
        LM  2.40±18.93   
    Time of day     
        Day 120.27 <0.001 
        Night  -135.32±12.34   
    Week -31.01±3.10 100.21 <0.001 
Excluded terms     
    Food quality  1.02 0.313 
    Mean temperature  4.25 0.120 
    Female mass  3.29 0.070 

A non-significant random term of `bird identities and calorimeter chamber'was used (χ2=3.51; d.f.=1; P>0.085) to be consistent. The analysis was similar without this random term, and also if the close-to-significant term of `female mass' was controlled for.

For definitions of HM, MH, ML, LM, see text.

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