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Table 1.

Linear mixed model (REML) of energy expenditure (from Experiment 1) in terms of food quality, temperature variation, mean temperature and time of day

Energy expenditure
Termd.f.EffectWald statistic (χ2)P value
Minimal model     
    Food quality     
        HQ 52.48 <0.001 
        LQ  89.0±12.3   
    Temperature treatment     
        C    
        L 29.7±15.0 14.83 <0.001 
        H  58.2±15.2   
    Mean temperature -3.98±1.38 8.29 0.004 
    Time of day     
        Day 75.28 <0.001 
        Night  -172.2±19.8   
Excluded terms     
    Egg mass  2.82 0.093 
    Week  0.78 0.376 
Energy expenditure
Termd.f.EffectWald statistic (χ2)P value
Minimal model     
    Food quality     
        HQ 52.48 <0.001 
        LQ  89.0±12.3   
    Temperature treatment     
        C    
        L 29.7±15.0 14.83 <0.001 
        H  58.2±15.2   
    Mean temperature -3.98±1.38 8.29 0.004 
    Time of day     
        Day 75.28 <0.001 
        Night  -172.2±19.8   
Excluded terms     
    Egg mass  2.82 0.093 
    Week  0.78 0.376 

A random term of `bird identities and calorimeter chamber' was used(χ2=37.24; d.f.=1; P<0.001) to account for the non-independence of conditions from different chambers, and repeated measures of the same birds.

For definitions of HQ, LQ, C, L and H, see text.

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