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Table 5.

Relative contributions (% of total) of various N-products to nitrogen excretion rates reported for different fish species

°CAmmoniaUreaCreatinine + creatineTMAO + TMAUric acidAmineNitrite + nitrateAmino acidsProteinUnknownRef.
Carp (Cyprinus carpio 18.5 56.0-63.5 5.7-6.7 4.4-6.5  0.2 3.2-9.5    15.9-28.1 
Sculpin (Leptocottus armatus 12 52.6-72.4 16.9-24.7 0.0-1.4 1.3-5.2      4.1-22.3 
Starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus 12 81.4-86.2 11.5-12.1 0.1-0.3 0.2-1.6      0.4-6.2 
Blue sea-perch (Taeniotoca lateralis 12 48.0 38.1 0.0 0.7      13.2 
Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens 15 40.1-49.4 12.7-16.5 15.9-30.1       4.0-31.3 
White steenbras (Lithognathus lithognathusFasted 15-25 83.0 6.0     <1 11   
 Fed  79.0 8.0     <1 13   
Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar 12 64.7 10.0        25.3 
  10 70.6 10.6        18.8 
  64.5 9.7        25.8 
Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus 66.8 7.7        25.5 
Midshipman (Porichthys notatusFasted 11-13 69.2 3.7        27.1 
 Fed  63.6 2.3        34.1 
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykissFasted 13 27.0-51.9 18.7-33.3       21.9-33.0 1.2-10 
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss 10 52.4 36.4        11.2 
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss 14 32.1 4.3        63.6 
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykissFasted 11 66.4 10.3 0.6 ND ND  ND 4.1 3.1 15.5 10 
 Fed  62.2 7.5 1.4     7.2 4.2 17.5 10 
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykissFasted 11 68.0 8.6 0.9 ND ND  ND 5.0 5.5 12.0 11 
 Fed  52.8 5.6 1.1     9.6 11.2 19.7 11 
°CAmmoniaUreaCreatinine + creatineTMAO + TMAUric acidAmineNitrite + nitrateAmino acidsProteinUnknownRef.
Carp (Cyprinus carpio 18.5 56.0-63.5 5.7-6.7 4.4-6.5  0.2 3.2-9.5    15.9-28.1 
Sculpin (Leptocottus armatus 12 52.6-72.4 16.9-24.7 0.0-1.4 1.3-5.2      4.1-22.3 
Starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus 12 81.4-86.2 11.5-12.1 0.1-0.3 0.2-1.6      0.4-6.2 
Blue sea-perch (Taeniotoca lateralis 12 48.0 38.1 0.0 0.7      13.2 
Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens 15 40.1-49.4 12.7-16.5 15.9-30.1       4.0-31.3 
White steenbras (Lithognathus lithognathusFasted 15-25 83.0 6.0     <1 11   
 Fed  79.0 8.0     <1 13   
Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar 12 64.7 10.0        25.3 
  10 70.6 10.6        18.8 
  64.5 9.7        25.8 
Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus 66.8 7.7        25.5 
Midshipman (Porichthys notatusFasted 11-13 69.2 3.7        27.1 
 Fed  63.6 2.3        34.1 
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykissFasted 13 27.0-51.9 18.7-33.3       21.9-33.0 1.2-10 
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss 10 52.4 36.4        11.2 
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss 14 32.1 4.3        63.6 
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykissFasted 11 66.4 10.3 0.6 ND ND  ND 4.1 3.1 15.5 10 
 Fed  62.2 7.5 1.4     7.2 4.2 17.5 10 
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykissFasted 11 68.0 8.6 0.9 ND ND  ND 5.0 5.5 12.0 11 
 Fed  52.8 5.6 1.1     9.6 11.2 19.7 11 

1Smith (1929), 2Wood (1958), 3McCarthy and Whitledge(1972), 4Cockcroft and Du Preez (1989), 5Fivelstad et al.(1990), 6Walsh et al. (2001), 7Olson and Fromm (1971), 8Beamish and Thomas(1984), 9De Boeck et al. (2001), 10present study (unsutured group), 11present study(sutured group).

ND, not detected.

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