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Table 1.

Terms used in this study to compare mechanical patterns of the center of mass to gait patterns of the limbs

Whole-body mechanics (patterns of center-of-mass fluctuation)a  
Pendular mechanics Inverted pendulum-like mechanism 
Spring mechanics Spring-mass mechanism 
Gaits (patterns of footfalls)b  
Walk Duty factor >50% (includes several possible walking gaits*
Run Duty factor <50% (includes several possible running gaits*
Trot Limb phase 50±10% (diagonal couplet gait) 
Walking trot Limb phase 50±10% (with >50% duty factor) 
Running trot Limb phase 50±10% (with <50% duty factor) 
Strides  
Aerial Steps separated by periods with no limb contact with the ground 
Non-aerial Steps overlapping — continuous ground contact by at least one limb 
Whole-body mechanics (patterns of center-of-mass fluctuation)a  
Pendular mechanics Inverted pendulum-like mechanism 
Spring mechanics Spring-mass mechanism 
Gaits (patterns of footfalls)b  
Walk Duty factor >50% (includes several possible walking gaits*
Run Duty factor <50% (includes several possible running gaits*
Trot Limb phase 50±10% (diagonal couplet gait) 
Walking trot Limb phase 50±10% (with >50% duty factor) 
Running trot Limb phase 50±10% (with <50% duty factor) 
Strides  
Aerial Steps separated by periods with no limb contact with the ground 
Non-aerial Steps overlapping — continuous ground contact by at least one limb 
a

Cavagna et al., 1977.

b

Hildebrand, 1976.

*

Determined by duty factor and limb phase.

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