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Table 1.

Comparative data for yaw and propulsive wavelength (as a percentage of fish length) in scombrid fishes

Yaw
PWL
PWL range
Fish length (cm)
Speed range (body lengths s−1)
Species%FL%TL%FL%TL%FL%TLFLTLSpeed (cm s−1)FL s−1TL s−1References
Tunas             
Yellowfin tuna 4.3±0.38  124±9    42±1.6  47±9.8 ∼1.1  
Thunnus albacares             
Yellowfin tuna 2.8±0.15  123±17    48±2.2  92±3.3 ∼1.9  
Thunnus albacares             
Yellowfin tuna   103    40-44  46-105 1.1-2.7  
Thunnus albacares             
Skipjack tuna   97    38-41  60-140 1.5-3.7  
Katsuwonus pelamis             
Kawakawa tuna  3.5±1.2 96±2 93±1  89-96 15.1-25.5 16.0-27.1 30-120 1.6-5.0  
Euthynnus affinis       (21.4±2.7)      
Bonito             
Eastern Pacific bonito 6.0±0.6 5.6±0.6 128±2 120±2 118-134 110-129 45.0-50.5 49.0-55.0 50-140 1.0-2.9 1.0-2.7 
Sarda chiliensis             
Eastern Pacific bonito  5.0±1  113±6   60-71     
Sarda chiliensis             
Mackerels             
Atlantic mackerel  3.0-3.6  89  78-106  30-34 129-381  3.9-11.2 
Scomber scombrus             
Chub mackerel  3.8±1.5 116±4 109±3 97-144 98-119 14.0-23.4 14.8-25.3 30-110 1.4-5.9  
Scomber japonicus       (20.3±3.4)      
Chub mackerel  2.2±0.4 106±2 98±2 89-124 84-105 15.6-26.3  30-105 1.4-4.8  
Scomber japonicus       (20.9±4.0)      
Yaw
PWL
PWL range
Fish length (cm)
Speed range (body lengths s−1)
Species%FL%TL%FL%TL%FL%TLFLTLSpeed (cm s−1)FL s−1TL s−1References
Tunas             
Yellowfin tuna 4.3±0.38  124±9    42±1.6  47±9.8 ∼1.1  
Thunnus albacares             
Yellowfin tuna 2.8±0.15  123±17    48±2.2  92±3.3 ∼1.9  
Thunnus albacares             
Yellowfin tuna   103    40-44  46-105 1.1-2.7  
Thunnus albacares             
Skipjack tuna   97    38-41  60-140 1.5-3.7  
Katsuwonus pelamis             
Kawakawa tuna  3.5±1.2 96±2 93±1  89-96 15.1-25.5 16.0-27.1 30-120 1.6-5.0  
Euthynnus affinis       (21.4±2.7)      
Bonito             
Eastern Pacific bonito 6.0±0.6 5.6±0.6 128±2 120±2 118-134 110-129 45.0-50.5 49.0-55.0 50-140 1.0-2.9 1.0-2.7 
Sarda chiliensis             
Eastern Pacific bonito  5.0±1  113±6   60-71     
Sarda chiliensis             
Mackerels             
Atlantic mackerel  3.0-3.6  89  78-106  30-34 129-381  3.9-11.2 
Scomber scombrus             
Chub mackerel  3.8±1.5 116±4 109±3 97-144 98-119 14.0-23.4 14.8-25.3 30-110 1.4-5.9  
Scomber japonicus       (20.3±3.4)      
Chub mackerel  2.2±0.4 106±2 98±2 89-124 84-105 15.6-26.3  30-105 1.4-4.8  
Scomber japonicus       (20.9±4.0)      

Values are means±s.d. or range (N.B. PWL values are means±s.e.m.).

FL, fork length; TL, total length; PWL, propulsive wavelength.

1Dewar and Graham(1994b); 2 Knower(1998); 3Donley and Dickson (2000); 4This study; 5Ellerby et al.(2000); 6Videler and Hess (1984); 7Dickson et al.(2002).

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