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Table 1.

Cardiovascular data for trout kept in control or copper and low pH (CLP) waters for 96 h and measured at routine levels of activity and at critical swimming speed (Ucrit)

Activity level Control CLP
Cardiac output (ml min-1 kg-1)   Routine   34.5±3.0   45.8±5.7  
 Ucrit  90.4±8.1***  63.8±8.5*,# 
Heart rate (beats min-1)   Routine   28.2±2.3   31.9±1.5  
 Ucrit  68.6±2.8***  54.6±1.7***,## 
Stroke volume (ml kg-1)   Routine   1.2±0.03   1.4±0.20  
 Ucrit  1.3±0.09   1.1±0.16  
Activity level Control CLP
Cardiac output (ml min-1 kg-1)   Routine   34.5±3.0   45.8±5.7  
 Ucrit  90.4±8.1***  63.8±8.5*,# 
Heart rate (beats min-1)   Routine   28.2±2.3   31.9±1.5  
 Ucrit  68.6±2.8***  54.6±1.7***,## 
Stroke volume (ml kg-1)   Routine   1.2±0.03   1.4±0.20  
 Ucrit  1.3±0.09   1.1±0.16  

Control conditions: pH 7, no copper; N=4; CLP conditions: pH 5, 0.08 μmol l-1 copper; N=4.

Superscript symbols denote significant effects; * effect of exercise, # effect of CLP. The number of symbols indicates the level of the effect (one, two and three symbols, P<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001, respectively).

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