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Table 1.

Properties of light in the orientation cages as experienced by juvenile European robins during the experiments

ExperimentPeak (nm)Half bandwidth (nm)Range of half bandwidth (nm)Irradiance (mW m-2)Photon quantities
(×1015 quanta s-1 m-2)(log quanta s-1 cm-2)
W1 764.0   3.9 11.6 
W10 764.0   10 39 12.6 
W20 764.0   20 79 12.9 
G1 560.5 555.5-564.5 2.9 11.5 
G5 560.5 555.5-564.5 14 12.2 
G10 560.5 555.5-564.5 10 29 12.5 
GY1 567.5 10 562.5-572.5 2.9 11.5 
GY5 567.5 10 562.5-572.5 14 12.1 
GY10 567.5 10 562.5-572.5 10 29 12.5 
R1 617.0 11 611.0-622.0 3.2 11.5 
R5 617.0 11 611.0-622.0 16 12.2 
R10 617.0 11 611.0-622.0 10 32 12.5 
ExperimentPeak (nm)Half bandwidth (nm)Range of half bandwidth (nm)Irradiance (mW m-2)Photon quantities
(×1015 quanta s-1 m-2)(log quanta s-1 cm-2)
W1 764.0   3.9 11.6 
W10 764.0   10 39 12.6 
W20 764.0   20 79 12.9 
G1 560.5 555.5-564.5 2.9 11.5 
G5 560.5 555.5-564.5 14 12.2 
G10 560.5 555.5-564.5 10 29 12.5 
GY1 567.5 10 562.5-572.5 2.9 11.5 
GY5 567.5 10 562.5-572.5 14 12.1 
GY10 567.5 10 562.5-572.5 10 29 12.5 
R1 617.0 11 611.0-622.0 3.2 11.5 
R5 617.0 11 611.0-622.0 16 12.2 
R10 617.0 11 611.0-622.0 10 32 12.5 

Intensities are given in radiometric irradiance (mW m-2) and photon quantities (photon irradiance: quanta s-1 m-2,log quanta s-1 cm-2). The intensities that the birds experienced through the different colour filters correspond to natural light levels ranging from values measured at a sun elevation of approximately-2.5° below the horizon (1 mW m-2) to values measured just before the end of civil twilight [sun elevation -6° below horizon, 10 mW m-2; as estimated from spectral irradiance curves measured in nature during twilight (McFarland and Munz, 1975)]. See also Figs 2, 5.

W, full-spectrum light; G, green light; GY, green-yellow light; R, red light.

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