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Table 2.

Magnitude and distribution of oxygen stores in penguins

BirdRespiratory volume (ml kg-1)Total body oxygen (ml O2 kg-1)Respiratory system (%)Blood (%)Muscle (%)Measuring conditionSource
King penguin 69* 45 23 30 47 Restrained Ponganis et al. (1999) 
King penguin 125* 54 35 25 40 Free-ranging Present study 
Adélie penguin 165* 55 45 29 26 Restrained Kooyman et al. (1973), Kooyman and Ponganis (1998) 
Adélie penguin 200* 61 50 26 24 Free-ranging Present study 
BirdRespiratory volume (ml kg-1)Total body oxygen (ml O2 kg-1)Respiratory system (%)Blood (%)Muscle (%)Measuring conditionSource
King penguin 69* 45 23 30 47 Restrained Ponganis et al. (1999) 
King penguin 125* 54 35 25 40 Free-ranging Present study 
Adélie penguin 165* 55 45 29 26 Restrained Kooyman et al. (1973), Kooyman and Ponganis (1998) 
Adélie penguin 200* 61 50 26 24 Free-ranging Present study 
*

No correction for air in feathers. Kooyman et al.(1973) demonstrated that plumage air of restrained Adélie penguins was not more than 10% of the total air volume.

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