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Table 3.

Maximum vertical pulling forces achieved by representatives of three Stenus species on various substrata

Maximum vertical pulling force (mN)
S. commaS. pubescensS. cicindeloides
Intact tarsi (N=20)    
Glass 0.092±0.07 1.369±0.37 1.207±0.36 
Fresh Glyceria 0.210±0.13 1.659±0.39 
Fresh Phragmites 0.455±0.18 1.323±0.46 
Dry Phragmites 1.071±0.19 1.236±0.27 1.171±0.31 
Filter paper 1.880±0.35 3.024±0.36 2.824±0.78 
Claws removed (N=10)    
Glass 0.070±0.04 1.350±0.35 1.153±0.40 
Fresh Glyceria 0.079±0.04 1.551±0.30 
Fresh Phragmites 0.086±0.06 1.049±0.34 
Dry Phragmites 0.044±0.04 0.267±0.12 0.166±0.05 
Filter paper 0.073±0.07 0.660±0.34 0.517±0.09 
Neutralized tenent setae (N=10)    
Glass 0.034±0.02 0.047±0.02 0.076±0.05 
Fresh Glyceria 0.092±0.04 0.106±0.03 
Fresh Phragmites 0.223±0.11 0.210±0.07 
Dry Phragmites 0.382±0.28 0.469±0.17 0.601±0.33 
Filter paper 1.456±0.39 1.751±0.50 2.476±0.72 
Maximum vertical pulling force (mN)
S. commaS. pubescensS. cicindeloides
Intact tarsi (N=20)    
Glass 0.092±0.07 1.369±0.37 1.207±0.36 
Fresh Glyceria 0.210±0.13 1.659±0.39 
Fresh Phragmites 0.455±0.18 1.323±0.46 
Dry Phragmites 1.071±0.19 1.236±0.27 1.171±0.31 
Filter paper 1.880±0.35 3.024±0.36 2.824±0.78 
Claws removed (N=10)    
Glass 0.070±0.04 1.350±0.35 1.153±0.40 
Fresh Glyceria 0.079±0.04 1.551±0.30 
Fresh Phragmites 0.086±0.06 1.049±0.34 
Dry Phragmites 0.044±0.04 0.267±0.12 0.166±0.05 
Filter paper 0.073±0.07 0.660±0.34 0.517±0.09 
Neutralized tenent setae (N=10)    
Glass 0.034±0.02 0.047±0.02 0.076±0.05 
Fresh Glyceria 0.092±0.04 0.106±0.03 
Fresh Phragmites 0.223±0.11 0.210±0.07 
Dry Phragmites 0.382±0.28 0.469±0.17 0.601±0.33 
Filter paper 1.456±0.39 1.751±0.50 2.476±0.72 

Values are arithmetic means ± S.D.

S. comma has slender tarsi; the other two species have wide tarsi.-, not measured.

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