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Table 1.

Experimental values of the parameters of the walking step

tpk+ (ms)ttr,up (ms)tpk- (ms)ttr,down (ms)τ (ms)α (degrees)β (degrees)RstepRint
European          
Unloaded 18.1±14 265±23.6 18.8±20.4 255±20.9 557±46.3 11.5±8.8 11.9±12.1 0.67±0.04 0.61±0.04 
Loaded 15.6±13.2 259±20.6 10.9±10.3 258±17.4 544±29 10.3±8.4 7.2±6.7 0.65±0.04 0.61±0.04 
P 0.465 0.313 0.058 0.439 0.212 0.584 0.057 0.058 0.731 
African          
Unloaded 32.3±15.6 246±26 21.9±25.7 240±32.1 540±52.9 21.5±9.3 14.4±15.2 0.66±0.06 0.62±0.06 
Loaded 21.4±10.6 246±19 7.9±8.6 248±23.5 524±33.4 14.7±7.2 5.5±5.8 0.71±0.05 0.67±0.05 
P 0.002 0.913 0.005 0.252 0.148 0.002 0.003 
tpk+ (ms)ttr,up (ms)tpk- (ms)ttr,down (ms)τ (ms)α (degrees)β (degrees)RstepRint
European          
Unloaded 18.1±14 265±23.6 18.8±20.4 255±20.9 557±46.3 11.5±8.8 11.9±12.1 0.67±0.04 0.61±0.04 
Loaded 15.6±13.2 259±20.6 10.9±10.3 258±17.4 544±29 10.3±8.4 7.2±6.7 0.65±0.04 0.61±0.04 
P 0.465 0.313 0.058 0.439 0.212 0.584 0.057 0.058 0.731 
African          
Unloaded 32.3±15.6 246±26 21.9±25.7 240±32.1 540±52.9 21.5±9.3 14.4±15.2 0.66±0.06 0.62±0.06 
Loaded 21.4±10.6 246±19 7.9±8.6 248±23.5 524±33.4 14.7±7.2 5.5±5.8 0.71±0.05 0.67±0.05 
P 0.002 0.913 0.005 0.252 0.148 0.002 0.003 

tpk+, period when Ek and Ep increase simultaneously; ttr,up,period of Ek-Ep transduction during the lift of the centre of mass; tpk-, period when Ek and Ep decrease simultaneously; ttr,down, period of EkEp transduction during the descent of the centre of mass; τ, step period; α, phase shift between the maximum of Ek and the minimum of Ep; β, phase shift between the minimum of Ek and the maximum of Ep; Rstep, recovery of mechanical energy calculated from the sum of the positive increments over the whole step of Ek, Ep and Ecg; Rint,recovery of mechanical energy calculated from the increments of kinetic energy Ek, gravitational potential energy Epand total mechanical energy at the centre of mass Ecg, at each instant during the step.

Values are means ± S.D. (N=32)

Comparisons between groups were made using a single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) (Excel v8.0).

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