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Table 7.

Summary data for comparisons of joint moments, mid-stance ground reaction force magnitudes and effective mechanical advantage

Speed correlationPatas♀ BaboonSubadult ♂ baboonPatas— ♀ baboonPatas— ♂ baboon♀ Baboon— ♂ baboon
LS mean95% CILS mean95% CILS mean95% CIP-valueP-valueP-value
Joint moments           
Hip p,f 1.081 0.875-1.335 0.711 0.576-0.879 0.513 0.430-0.612 0.019 0.000 0.009 
Knee p,f,m 0.475 0.398-0.568 0.840 0.705-1.001 0.407 0.349-0.474 0.000 0.252 0.000 
Ankle p,f,m 1.160 1.025-1.314 0.802 0.709-0.908 0.535 0.480-0.596 0.000 0.000 0.000 
Shoulder f,m 0.414 0.321-0.534 0.880 0.683-1.133 0.590 0.454-0.766 0.000 0.104 0.017 
Elbow p,f,m 1.043 0.933-1.167 0.855 0.763-0.957 0.478 0.425-0.539 0.028 0.000 0.000 
Wrist p,f,m 0.492 0.440-0.551 0.521 0.466-0.583 0.246 0.219-0.276 0.526 0.000 0.000 
GRF           
Hindlimb p,f,m 13.177 12.020-14.445 11.353 10.358-12.445 7.012 6.472-7.599 0.050 0.000 0.000 
Forelimb p,f,m 12.552 11.619-13.559 12.605 11.676-13.609 7.127 6.584-7.714 0.944 0.000 0.000 
EMA           
Knee p,f 0.620 0.518-0.743 0.280 0.236-0.333 0.000 
Ankle p,f 0.296 0.278-0.316 0.346 0.325-0.369 0.004 
Elbow 0.526 0.461-0.601 0.312 0.290-0.336 0.000 
Speed correlationPatas♀ BaboonSubadult ♂ baboonPatas— ♀ baboonPatas— ♂ baboon♀ Baboon— ♂ baboon
LS mean95% CILS mean95% CILS mean95% CIP-valueP-valueP-value
Joint moments           
Hip p,f 1.081 0.875-1.335 0.711 0.576-0.879 0.513 0.430-0.612 0.019 0.000 0.009 
Knee p,f,m 0.475 0.398-0.568 0.840 0.705-1.001 0.407 0.349-0.474 0.000 0.252 0.000 
Ankle p,f,m 1.160 1.025-1.314 0.802 0.709-0.908 0.535 0.480-0.596 0.000 0.000 0.000 
Shoulder f,m 0.414 0.321-0.534 0.880 0.683-1.133 0.590 0.454-0.766 0.000 0.104 0.017 
Elbow p,f,m 1.043 0.933-1.167 0.855 0.763-0.957 0.478 0.425-0.539 0.028 0.000 0.000 
Wrist p,f,m 0.492 0.440-0.551 0.521 0.466-0.583 0.246 0.219-0.276 0.526 0.000 0.000 
GRF           
Hindlimb p,f,m 13.177 12.020-14.445 11.353 10.358-12.445 7.012 6.472-7.599 0.050 0.000 0.000 
Forelimb p,f,m 12.552 11.619-13.559 12.605 11.676-13.609 7.127 6.584-7.714 0.944 0.000 0.000 
EMA           
Knee p,f 0.620 0.518-0.743 0.280 0.236-0.333 0.000 
Ankle p,f 0.296 0.278-0.316 0.346 0.325-0.369 0.004 
Elbow 0.526 0.461-0.601 0.312 0.290-0.336 0.000 

All comparisons were conducted using ANCOVA with the exception of the elbow EMA, which was conducted using an ANOVA (means rather than LS means are presented for this variable).

Comparisons are summarized visually in Fig. 5.

Significant P values are highlighted in bold print. GRF, ground reaction force; EMA, effective mechanical advantage; f, female baboon; m,subadult male baboon; n, variable not correlated with speed for any animal; p,male patas; LS mean, least-squares mean; CI, confidence interval.

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