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Table 6.

Summary data for joint angles and comparisons between the three 15 kg monkeys

Patas♀ BaboonSubadult ♂ baboonPatas- ♀ baboonPatas- ♂ baboon♀ Baboon- ♂ baboon
Speed correlationLS mean95% CILS mean95% CILS mean95% CIP-valueP-valueP-value
A Analysis of variance (ANOVA)           
Wrist MS f,m 122.92 120.4-125.5 136.28 132.1-140.6 144.06 140.8-147.4 0.002 0.000 0.002 
Elbow MS p,f,m          
Shoulder MS f,m 35.32 33.2-37.6 28.56 26.6-30.6 24.89 23.3-26.6 0.000 0.000 0.000 
Shoulder LO 47.71 46.1-49.3 52.10 51.0-53.3 46.43 45.7-47.2 0.000 0.106 0.000 
Shoulder TD p,f,m          
Forelimb TD 25.97 24.9-27.1 27.56 26.7-28.4 27.89 27.3-28.5 0.011 0.002 0.599 
Forelimb LO 36.09 34.3-38.0 39.90 38.7-41.1 39.36 38.4-40.4 0.000 0.001 0.601 
Shoulder AE 55.51 53.8-57.3 62.12 60.8-63.5 62.59 61.6-63.6 0.000 
Forelimb AE 62.47 60.7-64.3 67.99 66.6-69.4 67.08 66.1-68.1 0.000 0.000 0.000 
Hip TD 35.54 34.1-37.0 40.03 38.8-41.3 39.60 38.5-40.8 0.000 
Hindlimb TD p,f 28.10 27.0-29.2 34.98 33.8-36.2 34.18 33.3-35.1 0.000 0.000 0.337 
Ankle MS p,f,m          
Knee MS f,m 124.33 122.9-125.8 117.61 116.1-119.2 117.50 115.7-119.4 0.000 0.000 0.926 
Hip MS 16.72 15.0-18.6 19.66 17.9-21.6 18.90 17.6-20.3 0.017 0.049 0.520 
Hip LO 12.84 11.5-14.4 11.07 9.9-12.4 8.52 7.4-9.8 0.005 
Hindlimb LO 31.93 30.5-33.4 37.73 36.8-38.7 37.23 36.1-38.5 0.000 0.000 0.598 
Hip AE 50.57 49.4-51.8 52.01 51.0-53.0 49.80 48.7-50.9 0.097 
Hindlimb AE f,m 60.61 59.3-61.9 72.93 71.7-74.2 71.69 70.7-72.7 0.000 0.000 0.166 
B Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)           
Wrist MS f,m 131.33 127.7-135.0 133.46 130.6-136.4 139.34 136.3-142.4 0.396 0.003 0.005 
Elbow MS p,f,m 132.07 130.3-133.9 133.42 131.6-135.3 138.89 137.3-140.5 0.332 0.000 0.000 
Shoulder MS f,m 29.39 27.1-31.9 31.01 29.0-33.1 26.66 25.2-28.2 0.363 0.075 0.000 
Shoulder LO          
Shoulder TD p,f,m 7.51 6.5-8.7 7.98 6.9-9.2 13.62 12.0-15.4 0.595 0.000 0.000 
Forelimb TD          
Forelimb LO          
Shoulder AE 57.30 55.8-58.9 61.35 59.7-63.0 61.38 60.0-62.8 0.001 0.977 
Forelimb AE          
Hip TD 37.34 35.9-38.8 39.34 37.8-40.9 38.35 37.1-39.6 0.077 0.304 
Hindlimb TD p,f 30.14 28.9-31.4 33.79 32.7-34.9 32.97 31.9-34.1 0.000 0.003 0.264 
Ankle MS p,f,m 95.81 93.6-98.1 89.14 87.5-90.8 93.93 92.2-95.71 0.000 0.237 0.000 
Knee MS f,m 127.75 125.8-129.8 116.36 114.6-118.2 115.47 113.9-117.0 0.000 0.000 0.439 
Hip MS          
Hip LO 11.48 9.9-13.3 11.51 10.0-13.3 9.14 8.1-10.4 0.982 0.037 
Hindlimb LO          
Hip AE 51.32 50.0-52.7 51.75 50.5-53.1 49.34 48.3-50.4 0.042 0.004 
Hindlimb AE f,m 62.42 61.1-63.8 71.93 70.7-73.2 70.66 69.4-71.9 0.000 0.000 0.130 
Patas♀ BaboonSubadult ♂ baboonPatas- ♀ baboonPatas- ♂ baboon♀ Baboon- ♂ baboon
Speed correlationLS mean95% CILS mean95% CILS mean95% CIP-valueP-valueP-value
A Analysis of variance (ANOVA)           
Wrist MS f,m 122.92 120.4-125.5 136.28 132.1-140.6 144.06 140.8-147.4 0.002 0.000 0.002 
Elbow MS p,f,m          
Shoulder MS f,m 35.32 33.2-37.6 28.56 26.6-30.6 24.89 23.3-26.6 0.000 0.000 0.000 
Shoulder LO 47.71 46.1-49.3 52.10 51.0-53.3 46.43 45.7-47.2 0.000 0.106 0.000 
Shoulder TD p,f,m          
Forelimb TD 25.97 24.9-27.1 27.56 26.7-28.4 27.89 27.3-28.5 0.011 0.002 0.599 
Forelimb LO 36.09 34.3-38.0 39.90 38.7-41.1 39.36 38.4-40.4 0.000 0.001 0.601 
Shoulder AE 55.51 53.8-57.3 62.12 60.8-63.5 62.59 61.6-63.6 0.000 
Forelimb AE 62.47 60.7-64.3 67.99 66.6-69.4 67.08 66.1-68.1 0.000 0.000 0.000 
Hip TD 35.54 34.1-37.0 40.03 38.8-41.3 39.60 38.5-40.8 0.000 
Hindlimb TD p,f 28.10 27.0-29.2 34.98 33.8-36.2 34.18 33.3-35.1 0.000 0.000 0.337 
Ankle MS p,f,m          
Knee MS f,m 124.33 122.9-125.8 117.61 116.1-119.2 117.50 115.7-119.4 0.000 0.000 0.926 
Hip MS 16.72 15.0-18.6 19.66 17.9-21.6 18.90 17.6-20.3 0.017 0.049 0.520 
Hip LO 12.84 11.5-14.4 11.07 9.9-12.4 8.52 7.4-9.8 0.005 
Hindlimb LO 31.93 30.5-33.4 37.73 36.8-38.7 37.23 36.1-38.5 0.000 0.000 0.598 
Hip AE 50.57 49.4-51.8 52.01 51.0-53.0 49.80 48.7-50.9 0.097 
Hindlimb AE f,m 60.61 59.3-61.9 72.93 71.7-74.2 71.69 70.7-72.7 0.000 0.000 0.166 
B Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)           
Wrist MS f,m 131.33 127.7-135.0 133.46 130.6-136.4 139.34 136.3-142.4 0.396 0.003 0.005 
Elbow MS p,f,m 132.07 130.3-133.9 133.42 131.6-135.3 138.89 137.3-140.5 0.332 0.000 0.000 
Shoulder MS f,m 29.39 27.1-31.9 31.01 29.0-33.1 26.66 25.2-28.2 0.363 0.075 0.000 
Shoulder LO          
Shoulder TD p,f,m 7.51 6.5-8.7 7.98 6.9-9.2 13.62 12.0-15.4 0.595 0.000 0.000 
Forelimb TD          
Forelimb LO          
Shoulder AE 57.30 55.8-58.9 61.35 59.7-63.0 61.38 60.0-62.8 0.001 0.977 
Forelimb AE          
Hip TD 37.34 35.9-38.8 39.34 37.8-40.9 38.35 37.1-39.6 0.077 0.304 
Hindlimb TD p,f 30.14 28.9-31.4 33.79 32.7-34.9 32.97 31.9-34.1 0.000 0.003 0.264 
Ankle MS p,f,m 95.81 93.6-98.1 89.14 87.5-90.8 93.93 92.2-95.71 0.000 0.237 0.000 
Knee MS f,m 127.75 125.8-129.8 116.36 114.6-118.2 115.47 113.9-117.0 0.000 0.000 0.439 
Hip MS          
Hip LO 11.48 9.9-13.3 11.51 10.0-13.3 9.14 8.1-10.4 0.982 0.037 
Hindlimb LO          
Hip AE 51.32 50.0-52.7 51.75 50.5-53.1 49.34 48.3-50.4 0.042 0.004 
Hindlimb AE f,m 62.42 61.1-63.8 71.93 70.7-73.2 70.66 69.4-71.9 0.000 0.000 0.130 

A. Mean joint angles, confidence intervals (CI) and results of ANOVA for each pairwise comparison.

B. Least-squares (LS) means and confidence interval and results of ANCOVA.

Where significant differences between individuals were observed, the P-value for the comparison is highlighed in bold print.

The Bonferroni-adjusted type-one error rate was 0.017.

The column Speed correlation indicates whether the variable in question was correlated with speed for the male patas (p), the female baboon (f) or the subadult male baboon (m).

If a variable was correlated with speed for one individual but not the other, the ANCOVA was used to assess the significance of the observed difference. The differences are summarized in Fig. 4.

MS, mid-stance; LO, lift-off; TD, touch-down; AE, angular excursion; n,variable not correlated with speed for any animal.

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