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Table 5.

Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between kinematics variables and speed for each individual

Vervet MVervet FPatas FPatas MBaboon FBaboon M (A)Baboon M (SA)
Angles        
Wrist MS -0.064 0.208 -0.106 0.260 -0.687 -0.488 -0.639 
Elbow MS -0.557 -0.395 -0.674 -0.575 -0.716 -0.754 -0.452 
Shoulder MS 0.280 0.164 0.462 0.262 0.547 0.588 0.582 
Shoulder LO 0.121 -0.018 0.298 0.075 -0.032 0.359 -0.095 
Shoulder TD 0.097 0.022 -0.497 -0.340 -0.455 -0.259 -0.229 
Forelimb TD -0.142 0.240 -0.195 0.044 -0.186 0.011 -0.186 
Forelimb LO 0.119 0.143 0.076 -0.178 0.146 0.185 -0.220 
Shoulder AE 0.195 0.005 -0.102 -0.185 -0.381 0.076 -0.334 
Forelimb AE -0.002 0.281 -0.089 -0.169 0.148 0.195 -0.245 
Hip TD 0.000 -0.146 -0.095 -0.148 -0.580 -0.102 -0.197 
Hindlimb TD -0.243 -0.134 -0.432 -0.369 -0.695 -0.112 -0.044 
Ankle MS -0.456 -0.393 -0.599 -0.343 -0.341 -0.273 -0.271 
Knee MS -0.108 -0.225 -0.238 0.004 -0.500 -0.739 -0.529 
Hip MS -0.009 0.290 -0.305 -0.049 0.287 0.717 0.222 
Hip LO 0.646 0.668 -0.259 0.320 0.495 0.037 -0.090 
Hindlimb LO 0.274 0.487 -0.103 0.110 0.237 0.201 -0.242 
Hip AE 0.550 0.455 -0.209 0.135 -0.172 -0.073 -0.309 
Hindlimb AE 0.120 0.287 -0.360 -0.221 -0.453 0.116 -0.342 
Joint moments        
Wrist MS 0.815 0.780 0.641 0.852 0.930 0.103 0.854 
Elbow MS 0.788 0.753 0.779 0.819 0.954 0.219 0.695 
Shoulder MS 0.603 0.344 0.101 -0.022 0.667 0.118 0.687 
Ankle MS 0.780 0.794 0.777 0.712 0.849 0.647 0.224 
Knee MS 0.810 0.591 0.463 0.357 0.844 -0.021 0.755 
Hip MS 0.298 0.490 -0.155 0.482 0.484 0.509 0.005 
Effective mechanical advantage (EMA)        
Elbow -0.476 -0.421 -0.704 -0.560 -0.891 -0.250 
Ankle -0.466 -0.441 -0.364 -0.414 -0.269 -0.559 
Knee -0.347 0.201 -0.058 0.033 -0.200 0.231 
Vervet MVervet FPatas FPatas MBaboon FBaboon M (A)Baboon M (SA)
Angles        
Wrist MS -0.064 0.208 -0.106 0.260 -0.687 -0.488 -0.639 
Elbow MS -0.557 -0.395 -0.674 -0.575 -0.716 -0.754 -0.452 
Shoulder MS 0.280 0.164 0.462 0.262 0.547 0.588 0.582 
Shoulder LO 0.121 -0.018 0.298 0.075 -0.032 0.359 -0.095 
Shoulder TD 0.097 0.022 -0.497 -0.340 -0.455 -0.259 -0.229 
Forelimb TD -0.142 0.240 -0.195 0.044 -0.186 0.011 -0.186 
Forelimb LO 0.119 0.143 0.076 -0.178 0.146 0.185 -0.220 
Shoulder AE 0.195 0.005 -0.102 -0.185 -0.381 0.076 -0.334 
Forelimb AE -0.002 0.281 -0.089 -0.169 0.148 0.195 -0.245 
Hip TD 0.000 -0.146 -0.095 -0.148 -0.580 -0.102 -0.197 
Hindlimb TD -0.243 -0.134 -0.432 -0.369 -0.695 -0.112 -0.044 
Ankle MS -0.456 -0.393 -0.599 -0.343 -0.341 -0.273 -0.271 
Knee MS -0.108 -0.225 -0.238 0.004 -0.500 -0.739 -0.529 
Hip MS -0.009 0.290 -0.305 -0.049 0.287 0.717 0.222 
Hip LO 0.646 0.668 -0.259 0.320 0.495 0.037 -0.090 
Hindlimb LO 0.274 0.487 -0.103 0.110 0.237 0.201 -0.242 
Hip AE 0.550 0.455 -0.209 0.135 -0.172 -0.073 -0.309 
Hindlimb AE 0.120 0.287 -0.360 -0.221 -0.453 0.116 -0.342 
Joint moments        
Wrist MS 0.815 0.780 0.641 0.852 0.930 0.103 0.854 
Elbow MS 0.788 0.753 0.779 0.819 0.954 0.219 0.695 
Shoulder MS 0.603 0.344 0.101 -0.022 0.667 0.118 0.687 
Ankle MS 0.780 0.794 0.777 0.712 0.849 0.647 0.224 
Knee MS 0.810 0.591 0.463 0.357 0.844 -0.021 0.755 
Hip MS 0.298 0.490 -0.155 0.482 0.484 0.509 0.005 
Effective mechanical advantage (EMA)        
Elbow -0.476 -0.421 -0.704 -0.560 -0.891 -0.250 
Ankle -0.466 -0.441 -0.364 -0.414 -0.269 -0.559 
Knee -0.347 0.201 -0.058 0.033 -0.200 0.231 

Significant correlations are highlighted in bold print.

Although the correlations were not always significant for all individuals,many joint angles at mid-stance tend to become more flexed with increasing speed (negative correlations for wrist, elbow, ankle and knee, positive correlations for shoulder and hip).

Joint moments increase with speed as a result of the increased limb flexion as well as increasing GRF magitude.

EMA decreases with speed for the elbow and ankle for most individuals. Knee EMA does not change significantly with speed.

EMA could not be calculated for the subadult male baboon.

GRF, ground reaction force; MS, mid-stance; LO, lift-off; TD, touch-down;AE, angular excursion; F, female; M, male; A, adult; SA, subadult.

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