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Table 1.

Cardiovascular parameters following injections of adrenergic agonist and antagonist in the turtle Trachemys scripta

NfH (beats min-1)pul (ml kg-1min-1)sys (ml kg-1min-1)tot (ml kg-1min-1)Vstot (ml kg-1)Ppul (kPa)Psys (kPa)Rpul (kPa ml-1 kg min)Rsys (kPa ml-1 kg min)pul/sys
Group 1            
Control 35.8±2.7 74.1±13.8 33.9±5.4 107.9±16.9 3.1±0.5 2.29±0.18 3.23±0.26 0.04±0.01 0.12±0.03 2.38±0.41 
Norepinephrine 43.5±2.2a 124.6±18.7a 25.1±2.3 149.7±19.6a 3.5±0.5 3.93±0.26a 5.27±0.24a 0.04±0.01 0.22±0.02a 5.05±0.83a 
Phenylephrine 36.6±2.6 107.7±16.6a 22.7±2.0 130.5±16.5 3.7±0.6 3.06±0.17a 4.49±0.21a 0.03±0.01 0.21±0.02a 4.94±0.86a 
Propanolol 23.0±1.8a 40.5±11.6a 23.8±5.4 64.3±10.6a 2.9±0.6 2.09±0.26 3.07±0.32 0.09±0.03a 0.16±0.04 2.14±0.73 
Norepinephrine 28.7±2.1b 64.3±12.7 15.6±3.6 80.0±12.3 2.9±0.6 3.52±0.28b 4.60±0.26b 0.08±0.02 0.40±0.11b 5.60±1.49b 
Phenylephrine 25.1±1.6 52.0±10.9 20.3±3.3 72.3±12.2 2.9±0.6 2.82±0.38 3.73±0.42 0.09±0.04 0.22±0.05 2.84±0.52 
Phentolamine 20.0±1.6 11.6±1.8b 14.9±2.8 26.5±3.7b 1.3±0.1b 1.22±0.28b 1.38±0.32b 0.12±0.04 0.11±0.02 1.00±0.32 
Group 2            
Control 35.4±3.4 46.6±8.0 22.0±2.8 68.7±9.1 2.0±0.3 2.26±0.21 3.13±0.26 0.05±0.01 0.16±0.03 2.30±0.43 
Norepinephrine 42.8±2.4a 102.3±15.1a 16.0±2.3 118.3±13.6a 2.9±0.4a 4.43±0.49a 5.82±0.58a 0.05±0.01 0.41±0.08a 7.81±2.29b 
Phenylephrine 35.6±3.6 80.9±10.7a 17.5±2.9 98.4±9.3a 2.9±0.4a 3.08±0.26a 4.47±0.36a 0.04±0.01 0.30±0.06a 5.62±1.47b 
Phentolamine 35.4±3.1 26.4±5.2a 24.6±3.8 51.0±7.5 1.4±0.2 1.39±0.11a 1.62±0.05a 0.08±0.03 0.08±0.02a 1.11±0.20 
Norepinephrine 38.0±2.4 40.3±12.1 27.8±4.0 68.0±13.2 1.8±0.4 1.76±0.09 2.30±0.15b 0.08±0.02 0.10±0.02 1.51±0.37 
Phenylephrine 36.3±3.4 47.4±14.2 32.4±5.6 79.7±18.4b 2.3±0.6 1.77±0.14 2.32±0.13b 0.05±0.02 0.09±0.02 1.20±0.33 
Propanolol 23.0±3.0b 23.3±7.2 26.8±7.8 50.1±14.0 2.1±0.6 1.64±0.17 2.35±0.21b 0.13±0.05 0.16±0.07 0.98±0.22 
NfH (beats min-1)pul (ml kg-1min-1)sys (ml kg-1min-1)tot (ml kg-1min-1)Vstot (ml kg-1)Ppul (kPa)Psys (kPa)Rpul (kPa ml-1 kg min)Rsys (kPa ml-1 kg min)pul/sys
Group 1            
Control 35.8±2.7 74.1±13.8 33.9±5.4 107.9±16.9 3.1±0.5 2.29±0.18 3.23±0.26 0.04±0.01 0.12±0.03 2.38±0.41 
Norepinephrine 43.5±2.2a 124.6±18.7a 25.1±2.3 149.7±19.6a 3.5±0.5 3.93±0.26a 5.27±0.24a 0.04±0.01 0.22±0.02a 5.05±0.83a 
Phenylephrine 36.6±2.6 107.7±16.6a 22.7±2.0 130.5±16.5 3.7±0.6 3.06±0.17a 4.49±0.21a 0.03±0.01 0.21±0.02a 4.94±0.86a 
Propanolol 23.0±1.8a 40.5±11.6a 23.8±5.4 64.3±10.6a 2.9±0.6 2.09±0.26 3.07±0.32 0.09±0.03a 0.16±0.04 2.14±0.73 
Norepinephrine 28.7±2.1b 64.3±12.7 15.6±3.6 80.0±12.3 2.9±0.6 3.52±0.28b 4.60±0.26b 0.08±0.02 0.40±0.11b 5.60±1.49b 
Phenylephrine 25.1±1.6 52.0±10.9 20.3±3.3 72.3±12.2 2.9±0.6 2.82±0.38 3.73±0.42 0.09±0.04 0.22±0.05 2.84±0.52 
Phentolamine 20.0±1.6 11.6±1.8b 14.9±2.8 26.5±3.7b 1.3±0.1b 1.22±0.28b 1.38±0.32b 0.12±0.04 0.11±0.02 1.00±0.32 
Group 2            
Control 35.4±3.4 46.6±8.0 22.0±2.8 68.7±9.1 2.0±0.3 2.26±0.21 3.13±0.26 0.05±0.01 0.16±0.03 2.30±0.43 
Norepinephrine 42.8±2.4a 102.3±15.1a 16.0±2.3 118.3±13.6a 2.9±0.4a 4.43±0.49a 5.82±0.58a 0.05±0.01 0.41±0.08a 7.81±2.29b 
Phenylephrine 35.6±3.6 80.9±10.7a 17.5±2.9 98.4±9.3a 2.9±0.4a 3.08±0.26a 4.47±0.36a 0.04±0.01 0.30±0.06a 5.62±1.47b 
Phentolamine 35.4±3.1 26.4±5.2a 24.6±3.8 51.0±7.5 1.4±0.2 1.39±0.11a 1.62±0.05a 0.08±0.03 0.08±0.02a 1.11±0.20 
Norepinephrine 38.0±2.4 40.3±12.1 27.8±4.0 68.0±13.2 1.8±0.4 1.76±0.09 2.30±0.15b 0.08±0.02 0.10±0.02 1.51±0.37 
Phenylephrine 36.3±3.4 47.4±14.2 32.4±5.6 79.7±18.4b 2.3±0.6 1.77±0.14 2.32±0.13b 0.05±0.02 0.09±0.02 1.20±0.33 
Propanolol 23.0±3.0b 23.3±7.2 26.8±7.8 50.1±14.0 2.1±0.6 1.64±0.17 2.35±0.21b 0.13±0.05 0.16±0.07 0.98±0.22 

Values are means ± S.E.M.

Norepinephrine and phenylephrine, 5 μg kg-1; propanolol and phentolamine, 3 mg kg-1.

fH, heart rate; pul, pulmonary bloodflow; sys, systemic bloodflow; tot, total bloodflow; Vstot, stroke volume; Ppul, mean pulmonary blood pressure; Psys, mean systemic blood pressure; Rpul, pulmonary resistance; Rsys, systemic resistance; pul/sys;ratio of pulmonary and systemic blood flow.

a

signifies a significant difference from the control and bsignifies a significant difference following injection of the first antagonist. Statistical significance is taken at the level of P<0.05.

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