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Table 1.

Neuromuscular variables reported to change at low temperature following cold-acclimation in teleost fish

Species
ParameterCommon carp Cyprinus carpioGoldfish Carassius auratusKillifish Fundulus heteroclitusShort-horn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpiusRainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykissScup Stenotomus chrysop
Motor nerve EMG duration ND ND ND ND ND ↓ 
Muscle       
Activation time ↓ *↓ *↓ — *↓ ↓ 
Relaxation time ↓   —  — 
Vmax ↑ ND ND — ND — 
Pmax ↑ ND ND — ND — 
Myofibrillar ATPase activity ↑ ↑ ↑ — — ND 
MyHC composition Yes Yes No No — ND 
LC3f:LC1f ratio Yes ND ND Yes ND ND 
Species
ParameterCommon carp Cyprinus carpioGoldfish Carassius auratusKillifish Fundulus heteroclitusShort-horn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpiusRainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykissScup Stenotomus chrysop
Motor nerve EMG duration ND ND ND ND ND ↓ 
Muscle       
Activation time ↓ *↓ *↓ — *↓ ↓ 
Relaxation time ↓   —  — 
Vmax ↑ ND ND — ND — 
Pmax ↑ ND ND — ND — 
Myofibrillar ATPase activity ↑ ↑ ↑ — — ND 
MyHC composition Yes Yes No No — ND 
LC3f:LC1f ratio Yes ND ND Yes ND ND 

Cyprinus carpio1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, Carassius auratus10, Fundulus heteroclitus10, Myoxocephalus scorpius11,12, Stenotomus chrysops13,14, Oncorhynchus mykiss15.

MyHC, myosin heavy chain; LC3f:LC1f ratio, molar ratio of isoforms of fast myosin light chain 3 to fast muscle myosin light chain 1.

Upward-facing arrows indicate an increase; downward-pointing, a decrease;dashes, no change; ND, not determined; Pmax, maximum tension; Vmax, maximum unloaded shortening speed; *indicates a decrease in twitch contraction time (force onset to 50%relaxation); activation and relaxation times were not separately reported.

Data are taken from 1Johnston et al.(1985), 2Crockford and Johnston (1990), 3Hwang et al.(1990), 4Johnston et al. (1990), 5Langfeld et al.(1991), 6Hirayama et al. (1997), 7Imai et al.(1997), 8Wakeling et al. (2000), 9Cole and Johnston(2001), 10Johnson and Bennett (1995), 11Beddow and Johnston(1995), 12Ball and Johnston (1996), 13Rome and Swank(2001), 14Swank and Rome (2001) and 15Johnson et al.(1996).

Refer to the text for information on the muscle fibre type studied in each species.

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