Skip to Main Content
Table 2.

Transcriptional changes in human m. vastus lateralis in response to exercise

Stimulus
ResponseChangeProtocolTime of (maximum) responseMechanicalMetabolicReference
Second messengers       
JNK phosphorylation Eightfold 30 min treadmill, 5 mmol l-1 lactate 4-30 min post exercise con/ecc Lactate 
JNK kinase activity 5.9-fold 60 min ergometer, 70%O2max <10 min post-exercise con  
JNK kinase activity 3.5- to 15.4-fold Maximal knee extension, 10 sets, 10 repetitions <10 min post-exercise ecc>con  
ERK phosphorylation Eightfold 60 min ergometer, marathon <10 min post-exercise con  1, 14 
p38 phosphorylation 4.4-fold Marathon 3-4.5 h  con/ecc  14 
α2-AMPK kinase activity 3-4-fold 60 min ergometer, 70 %O2max <10 min post-exercise  Lactate 13 
Immediate early genes       
c-fos, fosB, fra-1, c-jun, junB, junD mRNA 3- to 20-fold 30 min treadmill, at aerobic threshold, 5 mmol l-1 lactate 4-30 min post-exercise con/ecc Lactate 
c-jun mRNA 1.8-fold 60 min ergometer, 70 % Wmax <10 min post-exercise con Lactate 
HSP-70 mRNA Fourfold 30 min treadmill, aerobic threshold 4 min to 3 h post-exercise con/ecc Lactate 
VEGF mRNA 2.1-fold 45 min knee extensor 30 min post-exercise con Lactate 
VEGF mRNA 7- to 17-fold 5 min warm-up, max. test (50 % max. work rate) 1 h post-exercise con Normoxia/PCO2 10 
Late genes       
LPL, PDK4, HKII, UCP-2, HO-1 transcription 2- to 4-fold 4 h ergometer, 50-60 %O2max 1-2 h post-exercise con  
LPL, CPTI, HKII, GYS, PDK4, UCP-3, HO-1mRNA 2- to 5-fold 60-90 min ergometer, 70% 2 min maxr, fifth day of training > 1 h mRNA post-exercise con  
LPL mRNA 1.3-fold 60-90 min ergometer, 55-70 % peak oxygen, fifth day of training 4 h post-exercise con  11 
Chronic events       
CPT I mRNA Twofold 60-90 min ergometer per day for 4 days, 70 % 2 min maxr  con  
MCAD mRNA 1.5-fold 5× per week 30 min ergometer at 67 % relative Wmax  con  12 
PFK, HSP-70, COX4 mRNA 1.5- to 2.5-fold 5× per week 30 min ergometer at 67 % relative Wmax  con Lactate 12 
VEGF mRNA 1.5-fold 5× per week 30 min ergometer at 58 % relative Wmax  con Lactate+PCO2 12 
HIF-1α mRNA 1.8-fold 5× per week 30 min ergometer at 52 % relative Wmax  con PCO2 12 
COX1, COX4, NADH6, 16S, SDH, fumarase mRNA 1.5- to 1.9-fold Years of systematic endurance training    
Stimulus
ResponseChangeProtocolTime of (maximum) responseMechanicalMetabolicReference
Second messengers       
JNK phosphorylation Eightfold 30 min treadmill, 5 mmol l-1 lactate 4-30 min post exercise con/ecc Lactate 
JNK kinase activity 5.9-fold 60 min ergometer, 70%O2max <10 min post-exercise con  
JNK kinase activity 3.5- to 15.4-fold Maximal knee extension, 10 sets, 10 repetitions <10 min post-exercise ecc>con  
ERK phosphorylation Eightfold 60 min ergometer, marathon <10 min post-exercise con  1, 14 
p38 phosphorylation 4.4-fold Marathon 3-4.5 h  con/ecc  14 
α2-AMPK kinase activity 3-4-fold 60 min ergometer, 70 %O2max <10 min post-exercise  Lactate 13 
Immediate early genes       
c-fos, fosB, fra-1, c-jun, junB, junD mRNA 3- to 20-fold 30 min treadmill, at aerobic threshold, 5 mmol l-1 lactate 4-30 min post-exercise con/ecc Lactate 
c-jun mRNA 1.8-fold 60 min ergometer, 70 % Wmax <10 min post-exercise con Lactate 
HSP-70 mRNA Fourfold 30 min treadmill, aerobic threshold 4 min to 3 h post-exercise con/ecc Lactate 
VEGF mRNA 2.1-fold 45 min knee extensor 30 min post-exercise con Lactate 
VEGF mRNA 7- to 17-fold 5 min warm-up, max. test (50 % max. work rate) 1 h post-exercise con Normoxia/PCO2 10 
Late genes       
LPL, PDK4, HKII, UCP-2, HO-1 transcription 2- to 4-fold 4 h ergometer, 50-60 %O2max 1-2 h post-exercise con  
LPL, CPTI, HKII, GYS, PDK4, UCP-3, HO-1mRNA 2- to 5-fold 60-90 min ergometer, 70% 2 min maxr, fifth day of training > 1 h mRNA post-exercise con  
LPL mRNA 1.3-fold 60-90 min ergometer, 55-70 % peak oxygen, fifth day of training 4 h post-exercise con  11 
Chronic events       
CPT I mRNA Twofold 60-90 min ergometer per day for 4 days, 70 % 2 min maxr  con  
MCAD mRNA 1.5-fold 5× per week 30 min ergometer at 67 % relative Wmax  con  12 
PFK, HSP-70, COX4 mRNA 1.5- to 2.5-fold 5× per week 30 min ergometer at 67 % relative Wmax  con Lactate 12 
VEGF mRNA 1.5-fold 5× per week 30 min ergometer at 58 % relative Wmax  con Lactate+PCO2 12 
HIF-1α mRNA 1.8-fold 5× per week 30 min ergometer at 52 % relative Wmax  con PCO2 12 
COX1, COX4, NADH6, 16S, SDH, fumarase mRNA 1.5- to 1.9-fold Years of systematic endurance training    

1, Aronson et al. (1997); 2,Aronson et al. (1998); 3,Boppart et al. (1999); 4,Gustafsson et al. (1999); 5,Heider et al. (1995); 6,Pilegaard et al. (2000); 7,Puntschart et al. (1995); 8,Puntschart et al. (1996); 9,Puntschart et al. (1998); 10,Richardson et al. (1999); 11,Seip et al. (1997); 12, Vogt et al. (2001); 13,Wojtaszewski et al. (2000);14, Yu et al. (2001); con,concentric exercise; ecc, eccentric exercise; Wmax,maximal power; O2max, maximal rate of oxygen uptake; maxr, maximal resistance; PCO2, cellular oxygen partial pressure.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal